Bacterial colonization in hemodialysis temporary dual lumen catheters: a prospective study.
ABSTRACT The use of hemodialysis temporary dual-lumen catheters is often complicated by infections, which may be a significant cause of death among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of bacteremia and bacterial colonization related to non-tunneled, non-cuffed, dual-lumen temporary catheters in patients with ESRD submitted to hemodialysis.
This study included 29 patients with ESRD. After catheter implantation, patients were monitored throughout the period of catheter permanence by means of blood samples collected weekly from a peripheral vein. Bacteria were isolated and identified according to CLSI recommendations. When catheters were removed for any reason, their tips were evaluated microbiologically.
A total of 194 blood samples from the 29 patients implanted with 55 catheters were analyzed. Of these, 15.5% (30 samples) demonstrated bacterial growth, principally Staphylococcus epidermidis (64.5%). Twenty patients (68.9%) presented at least one positive blood culture during follow-up. The median time for catheter colonization was 18.5 days (95% CI: 16.8-30.3). Of the 55 catheters implanted, 28 (50.9%) showed bacterial colonization, corresponding to 23.4 episodes/1000 catheter/days and 9.2 episodes of bacteremia /1000 catheter/days. Fifteen of 28 catheter tips analyzed showed bacterial growth (53.5%). In 14 of these (93.3%), there was agreement between the isolates from the catheter tip and blood cultures. Of 24 episodes of positive blood cultures from 20 different patients in 17 episodes (70.8%), the patients showed no clinical signs or symptoms of bacteremia.
The high incidence of catheter colonization, the correlation between blood and catheter tip cultures, and the occurrence of frequent cases of asymptomatic bacteremia justify the proposal of routine peripheral blood collections to monitor patients undergoing hemodialysis with temporary dual-lumen catheters.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence rate of complications associated with vascular catheters in intensive care unit patients and to analyze risk factors for a positive vascular culture, we performed a multicenter study of intensive care unit patients at eight French hospitals. During the study period, 865 intravenous catheters were inserted in 566 patients; 362 (41.8%) were peripheral catheters, and 503 (58.2%) were central catheters. Local complications (i.e., infiltration) occurred significantly more often with peripheral than with central catheters (P less than 0.001); in contrast, fever and bacteremia were significantly more often associated with central than with peripheral catheters (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.05, respectively). The culture of the vascular-catheter tip was positive for 24% of central catheters (32 of 1,000 catheters days) and for 9% of peripheral catheters (21 of 1,000 catheters days). Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common microorganism isolated from both peripheral and central catheters, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No significant risk factor associated with positive cultures for peripheral catheters was found by univariate analysis. In contrast, the purpose of the cannula (nutrition and monitoring of central venous pressure), the insertion site (jugular), the dressing type (semipermeable transparent dressing), the antiseptic used to prepare the insertion site (povidone iodine), and routine changing of the intravenous administration set were significantly associated with positive cultures of central catheters. Three factors, duration of catheterization, use of a semipermeable transparent dressing, and the jugular insertion site, were found to be independently associated with positive cultures of central catheters by multivariate analysis.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12/1990; 28(11):2520-5. · 4.07 Impact Factor
Article: Long-term central venous access.BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 06/2004; 92(5):722-34. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated a semiquantitative culture technic for identifying infection due to intravenous catheters: rolling the catheter segment across blood agar. This method was compared to broth culture. Of 250 catheters studied, 225 (90%) had low-density colonization on semiquantitative culture (less than 15 colonies on the plate) although 49 (19.6%) of these grew some organisms in broth or on the plate. None of these catheters led to septicemia. Twenty-five catheters (10%) grew greater than or equal to 15 colonies by the semiquantitative technic; most gave confluent growth. Septicemia originated from four of these catheters (P = 0.008). Of 37 catheters exposed to bacteremias from distant foci of infection, four yielded matching growth in broth, whereas none were concordant with the blood isolate on semiquantitative culture. Local inflammation was associated with high-density colonization semiquantitative culture (P less than 0.001). The semiquantitative technic distinguishes infection (greater than or equal to 15 colonies) from contamination and is more specific in diagnosis of catheter-related septicemia than culture of the catheter in broth.New England Journal of Medicine 07/1977; 296(23):1305-9. · 51.66 Impact Factor