Drinking expectancies and motives: a genetic study of young adult women.
ABSTRACT Constructs such as drinking expectancies (beliefs regarding the effects of alcohol) and motives (drinking alcohol to achieve a valued end) have been shown to be associated with various stages of alcohol use behaviors. However, little is known of the extent to which genetic and environmental influences contribute to individual differences in expectancies and motives.
Using data from 3,656 young adult same-sex female twins, we examined the association between measures of drinking expectancies and motives and drinking behaviors. Using twin models, we estimated the extent to which genetic, shared and non-shared environmental factors influenced individual differences in expectancies and motives and also tested whether the extent of the genetic and environmental contributions on expectancies varied across abstainers and users of alcohol.
Expectancies predicted initiation of alcohol use. Both motives and expectancies were associated with frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption and drinks-to-intoxication. There was no evidence for heritable influences on expectancies and enhancement motives, with familial similarity for these traits being due to shared environment. Heritable influences on social, coping and conformity motives ranged from 11% to 33%. When expectancies were stratified by alcohol use, significant heritable influences (31-39%) were found for cognitive-behavioral impairment and risk-taking/negative self-perception (RT/NSP) in abstainers only, while environmental influences contributed to familial variance for other measures of expectancies in alcohol users.
Environmental influences (both familial and individual-specific) shape alcohol expectancies, while heritable influences may predispose to motives for drinking. Individual differences in expectancies are moderated by alcohol use, suggesting that sources of individual differences in expectancies may vary in drinkers versus abstainers.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between personal value and the motivation for drinking of Korean undergraduate student alcohol drinkers. Data were obtained from undergraduate students experienced in alcohol consumption in Seoul, Kyeonggi-do, and Kyeongsangnam-do. Trained researchers for this particular study conducted the survey and data from 208 students was analyzed using the SPSS package program. In this study, two personal values were examined: 'internal value' and 'external value', and four motives for drinking alcohol were identified: social motive, coping motive, enhancement motive, and conformity motive. The results of the present study showed that personal value had significant effects on the motives for drinking of Korean undergraduate student alcohol drinkers: 1) The internal value was significant on the coping motive and enhancement motive. 2) The external value was significant on the social motive. 3) Neither value was significant on the conformity motive. Based on the findings of the present study, personal value would be a useful variable in the field of alcoholic beverage marketing such as alcohol consumption, consumer behaviors and segmentation of the alcoholic beverage market.01/2009; 24(4).
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ABSTRACT: Objective: A person's pattern of heavier drinking often changes over time, especially during the early drinking years, and reflects complex relationships among a wide range of characteristics. Optimal understanding of the predictors of drinking during times of change might come from studies of trajectories of alcohol intake rather than cross-sectional evaluations. Method: The patterns of maximum drinks per occasion were evaluated every 2 years between the average ages of 18 and 24 years for 833 subjects from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Latent class growth analysis identified latent classes for the trajectories of maximum drinks, and then logistic regression analyses highlighted variables that best predicted class membership. Results: Four latent classes were found, including Class 1 (69%), with about 5 maximum drinks per occasion across time; Class 2 (15%), with about 9 drinks at baseline that increased to 18 across time; Class 3 (10%), who began with a maximum of 18 drinks per occasion but decreased to 9 over time; and Class 4 (6%), with a maximum of about 22 drinks across time. The most consistent predictors of higher drinking classes were female sex, a low baseline level of response to alcohol, externalizing characteristics, prior alcohol and tobacco use, and heavier drinking peers. Conclusions: Four trajectory classes were observed and were best predicted by a combination of items that reflected demography, substance use, level of response and externalizing phenotypes, and baseline environment and attitudes. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 75, 24-34, 2014).Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 01/2014; 75(1):24-34. · 2.27 Impact Factor