Drinking expectancies and motives: a genetic study of young adult women.
ABSTRACT Constructs such as drinking expectancies (beliefs regarding the effects of alcohol) and motives (drinking alcohol to achieve a valued end) have been shown to be associated with various stages of alcohol use behaviors. However, little is known of the extent to which genetic and environmental influences contribute to individual differences in expectancies and motives.
Using data from 3,656 young adult same-sex female twins, we examined the association between measures of drinking expectancies and motives and drinking behaviors. Using twin models, we estimated the extent to which genetic, shared and non-shared environmental factors influenced individual differences in expectancies and motives and also tested whether the extent of the genetic and environmental contributions on expectancies varied across abstainers and users of alcohol.
Expectancies predicted initiation of alcohol use. Both motives and expectancies were associated with frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption and drinks-to-intoxication. There was no evidence for heritable influences on expectancies and enhancement motives, with familial similarity for these traits being due to shared environment. Heritable influences on social, coping and conformity motives ranged from 11% to 33%. When expectancies were stratified by alcohol use, significant heritable influences (31-39%) were found for cognitive-behavioral impairment and risk-taking/negative self-perception (RT/NSP) in abstainers only, while environmental influences contributed to familial variance for other measures of expectancies in alcohol users.
Environmental influences (both familial and individual-specific) shape alcohol expectancies, while heritable influences may predispose to motives for drinking. Individual differences in expectancies are moderated by alcohol use, suggesting that sources of individual differences in expectancies may vary in drinkers versus abstainers.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between personal value and the motivation for drinking of Korean undergraduate student alcohol drinkers. Data were obtained from undergraduate students experienced in alcohol consumption in Seoul, Kyeonggi-do, and Kyeongsangnam-do. Trained researchers for this particular study conducted the survey and data from 208 students was analyzed using the SPSS package program. In this study, two personal values were examined: 'internal value' and 'external value', and four motives for drinking alcohol were identified: social motive, coping motive, enhancement motive, and conformity motive. The results of the present study showed that personal value had significant effects on the motives for drinking of Korean undergraduate student alcohol drinkers: 1) The internal value was significant on the coping motive and enhancement motive. 2) The external value was significant on the social motive. 3) Neither value was significant on the conformity motive. Based on the findings of the present study, personal value would be a useful variable in the field of alcoholic beverage marketing such as alcohol consumption, consumer behaviors and segmentation of the alcoholic beverage market.Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture. 01/2009; 24(4).
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ABSTRACT: Why are some of us easily affected by the majority’s action whereas others frequently make unique choices? In this behavioral genetic study on conformity, we designed a social episode to investigate the genetic and environmental origin of individual differences in conforming behavior during psychosocial development. Specifically, 107 monozygotic (MZ) and 74 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (age 7–19) were asked to choose a pen from a group of pens either with the majority color or with the minority color. We found that the resemblance between MZ twins in selecting the pen with the majority color was not significantly higher than that between DZ twins, suggesting that individual differences in conformity are due almost exclusively to the environment. Moreover, biometric model fitting revealed that the shared environmental component played a sizable role in shaping individuals’ conforming behavior, and the influence increased with age (from 16% to 26%). Taken together, our study suggests that the common family and cultural environment has important ramifications for conformity.Chinese Science Bulletin 58(10). · 1.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research and theory strongly support the importance of situational determinants of substance use as targets for intervention, but few studies have systematically examined situational use characteristics in marijuana dependent adults. The present study describes situational use of marijuana in a population of 87 marijuana dependent adults and reports relationships with outcomes of treatment. Use in negative affective situations was independently associated with psychological distress, maladaptive coping strategies, lower self-efficacy, and poorer outcomes post-treatment. The findings were consistent with research on using drugs to cope with negative affect providing evidence of convergence between two different methods of assessing high risk situations for substance use. The results support continued emphasis on coping with negative affect as a target in treatments for marijuana dependence.Addictive behaviors 11/2013; · 2.25 Impact Factor