Insurance type and minority status associated with large disparities in prelisting dialysis among candidates for kidney transplantation.
ABSTRACT Disparities in time to placement on the waiting list on the basis of socioeconomic factors decrease access to deceased-donor renal transplantation for some groups of patients with end-stage renal disease. This study was undertaken to determine candidate factors that influence duration of dialysis before placement on the waiting list among candidates for deceased-donor renal transplantation in the United States from January 2001 to December 2004 and the impact of Medicare eligibility rules on access.
Access to the waiting list was measured as the percentage of all wait-listed candidates in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database who were listed before dialysis and by the duration of dialysis before placement on the waiting list. Multivariate logistic and linear regressions were used to determine variables that were predictive of preemptive listing and the duration of dialysis before listing.
The odds for preemptive placement on the waiting list improved during the course of the study period, whereas the median duration of prelisting dialysis did not. The candidate factors that were associated with low rates of preemptive listing and prolonged exposure to prelisting dialysis included Medicare insurance, minority race/ethnicity, and low educational attainment. In patients who were listed after the age of 64 yr, the adverse effect of Medicare insurance on access largely disappeared.
The disparity in dialysis exposure could potentially be diminished by concerted efforts on the part of the nephrology and transplant communities to promote early referral and preemptive placement on the waiting list, by calculating waiting time from the date of initiation of dialysis for patients who are on dialysis at the time of referral, and by relaxing Medicare eligibility requirements.
Article: The role of race and poverty on steps to kidney transplantation in the southeastern United States.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Racial disparities in access to renal transplantation exist, but the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on early steps of renal transplantation have not been well explored. Adult patients referred for renal transplant evaluation at a single transplant center in the Southeastern United States from 2005 to 2007, followed through May 2010, were examined. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from patient's medical records and then linked with United States Renal Data System and American Community Survey Census data. Cox models examined the effect of race on referral, evaluation, waitlisting and organ receipt. Of 2291 patients, 64.9% were black, the mean age was 49.4 years and 33.6% lived in poor neighborhoods. Racial disparities were observed in access to referral, transplant evaluation, waitlisting and organ receipt. SES explained almost one-third of the lower rate of transplant among black versus white patients, but even after adjustment for demographic, clinical and SES factors, blacks had a 59% lower rate of transplant than whites (hazard ratio = 0.41; 95% confidence interval: 0.28-0.58). Results suggest that improving access to healthcare may reduce some, but not all, of the racial disparities in access to kidney transplantation.American Journal of Transplantation 02/2012; 12(2):358-68. · 6.39 Impact Factor
Article: Racial disparities in pediatric access to kidney transplantation: does socioeconomic status play a role?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Racial disparities persist in access to renal transplantation in the United States, but the degree to which patient and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) impacts racial disparities in deceased donor renal transplantation access has not been examined in the pediatric and adolescent end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population. We examined the interplay of race and SES in a population-based cohort of all incident pediatric ESRD patients <21 years from the United States Renal Data System from 2000 to 2008, followed through September 2009. Of 8452 patients included, 30.8% were black, 27.6% white-Hispanic, 44.3% female and 28.0% lived in poor neighborhoods. A total of 63.4% of the study population was placed on the waiting list and 32.5% received a deceased donor transplant. Racial disparities persisted in transplant even after adjustment for SES, where minorities were less likely to receive a transplant compared to whites, and this disparity was more pronounced among patients 18-20 years. Disparities in access to the waiting list were mitigated in Hispanic patients with private health insurance. Our study suggests that racial disparities in transplant access worsen as pediatric patients transition into young adulthood, and that SES does not explain all of the racial differences in access to kidney transplantation.American Journal of Transplantation 02/2012; 12(2):369-78. · 6.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Low socioeconomic status (SES) influences disease incidence and contributes to poor health outcomes throughout an individual's life course across a wide range of populations. Low SES is associated with increased incidence of chronic kidney disease, progression to end-stage renal disease, inadequate dialysis treatment, reduced access to kidney transplantation, and poor health outcomes. Similarly, racial and ethnic disparities, which in the USA are strongly associated with lower SES, are independently associated with poor health outcomes. In this Review, we discuss individual-level and group-level SES factors, and the concomitant role of race and ethnicity that are associated with and mediate the development of chronic kidney disease, progression to end-stage renal disease and access to treatment.Nature Reviews Nephrology 06/2012; 8(9):533-41. · 7.09 Impact Factor