Evidence of key role of Cdk2 overexpression in pemphigus vulgaris.
ABSTRACT The pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is still poorly understood. Autoantibodies present in PV patients can promote detrimental effects by triggering altered transduction of signals, which results in a final acantholysis. To investigate mechanisms involved in PV, cultured keratinocytes were treated with PV serum. PV sera were able to promote the cell cycle progression, inducing the accumulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2). Microarray analysis on keratinocytes detected that PV serum induced important changes in genes coding for one and the same proteins with known biological functions involved in PV disease (560 differentially expressed genes were identified). Then, we used two different approaches to investigate the role of Cdk2. First, small interfering RNA depletion of Cdk2 prevented cell-cell detachment induced by PV sera. Second, pharmacological inhibition of Cdk2 activity through roscovitine prevented blister formation and acantholysis in the mouse model of the disease. In vivo PV serum was found to alter multiple different pathways by microarray analysis (1463 differentially expressed genes were identified). Major changes in gene expression induced by roscovitine were studied through comparison of effects of PV serum alone and in association with roscovitine. The most significantly enriched pathways were cell communication, gap junction, focal adhesion, adherens junction, and tight junction. Our data indicate that major Cdk2-dependent multiple gene regulatory events are present in PV. This alteration may influence the evolution of PV and its therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Desmosomes are cell-cell adhesion sites and part of the intercalated discs, which couple adjacent cardiomyocytes. The connection is formed by the extracellular domains of desmosomal cadherins that are also linked to the cytoskeleton on the cytoplasmic side. To examine the contribution of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 2 to cardiomyocyte adhesion and cardiac function, mutant mice were prepared lacking a part of the extracellular adhesive domain of desmoglein 2. Most live born mutant mice presented normal overall cardiac morphology at 2 weeks. Some animals, however, displayed extensive fibrotic lesions. Later on, mutants developed ventricular dilation leading to cardiac insufficiency and eventually premature death. Upon histological examination, cardiomyocyte death by calcifying necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue were observed. Fibrotic lesions were highly proliferative in 2-week-old mutants, whereas the fibrotic lesions of older mutants showed little proliferation indicating the completion of local muscle replacement by scar tissue. Disease progression correlated with increased mRNA expression of c-myc, ANF, BNF, CTGF and GDF15, which are markers for cardiac stress, remodeling and heart failure. Taken together, the desmoglein 2-mutant mice display features of dilative cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, an inherited human heart disease with pronounced fibrosis and ventricular arrhythmias that has been linked to mutations in desmosomal proteins including desmoglein 2.Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 04/2011; 106(4):617-33. · 7.35 Impact Factor