Antibody-mediated blockade of integrin alpha(v)beta(6) inhibits tumor progression in vivo by a transforming growth factor-beta-regulated mechanism

Department of Discovery Immunology, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 01/2008; 68(2):561-70. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-2307
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The alpha(v)beta(6) integrin is up-regulated on epithelial malignancies and has been implicated in various aspects of cancer progression. Immunohistochemical analysis of alpha(v)beta(6) expression in 10 human tumor types showed increased expression relative to normal tissues. Squamous carcinomas of the cervix, skin, esophagus, and head and neck exhibited the highest frequency of expression, with positive immunostaining in 92% (n = 46), 84% (n = 49), 68% (n = 56), and 64% (n = 100) of cases, respectively. We studied the role of alpha(v)beta(6) in Detroit 562 human pharyngeal carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Prominent alpha(v)beta(6) expression was detected on tumor xenografts at the tumor-stroma interface resembling the expression on human head and neck carcinomas. Nonetheless, coculturing cells in vitro with matrix proteins did not up-regulate alpha(v)beta(6) expression. Detroit 562 cells showed alpha(v)beta(6)-dependent adhesion and activation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) that was inhibited >90% with an alpha(v)beta(6) blocking antibody, 6.3G9. Although both recombinant soluble TGF-beta receptor type-II (rsTGF-beta RII-Fc) and 6.3G9 inhibited TGF-beta-mediated Smad2/3 phosphorylation in vitro, there was no effect on proliferation. Conversely, in vivo, 6.3G9 and rsTGF-beta RII-Fc inhibited xenograft tumor growth by 50% (n = 10, P < 0.05) and >90% (n = 10, P < 0.001), respectively, suggesting a role for the microenvironment in this response. However, stromal collagen and smooth muscle actin content in xenograft sections were unchanged with treatments. Although further studies are required to consolidate in vitro and in vivo results and define the mechanisms of tumor inhibition by alpha(v)beta(6) antibodies, our findings support a role for alpha(v)beta(6) in human cancer and underscore the therapeutic potential of function blocking alpha(v)beta(6) antibodies.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Integrins are a large family of molecules that are central regulators in multicellular biology. They orchestrate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesive interactions from embryonic development to mature tissue function. Diverse human pathologies involve integrin adhesion, including thrombotic diseases, inflammation, cancer, fibrosis and infectious diseases. Integrins are exciting pharmacological targets because they are exposed on the cell surface and are sensitive to pharmacological blockade, but the scale of current efforts involving integrin therapeutics continues to surprise. Several therapeutics targeting integrins are effective drugs: five have been approved for use in clinic, with combined sales of over $1.5 billion in 2010 (based on company reports from that year). We gathered information from three major drug-trial databases and found that ∼260 anti-integrin drugs have entered clinical trials. Here we overview integrins as drug targets and focus on cancer.
    Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 05/2012; 33(7):405-12. DOI:10.1016/ · 9.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increased expression of αv integrins is frequently associated with tumor cell adhesion, migration, invasion and metastasis, and correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer. However, the mechanism by which αv integrins can enhance breast cancer progression is still largely unclear. The effects of therapeutic targeting of αv integrins in breast cancer also have yet to be investigated. We knocked down αv integrin in MDA-MB-231 and MCF10A-M4 breast cancer cells, or treated these cells with the αv antagonist GLPG0187. The effects of αv integrin depletion on mesenchymal markers, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling and TGF-β-induced target gene expression were analyzed in MDA-MB-231 cells by RNA analysis or Western blotting. The function of αv integrin on breast cancer cell migration was investigated by transwell assay in vitro, and its effect on breast cancer progression was assessed by both zebrafish and mouse xenografts in vivo. In the mouse model, GLPG0187 was administered separately, or in combination with the standard-of-care anti-resorptive agent zoledronate and the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel, to study the effects of combinational treatments on breast cancer metastasis. Genetic interference and pharmacological targeting of αv integrin with GLPG0187 in different breast cancer cell lines inhibited invasion and metastasis in the zebrafish or mouse xenograft model. Depletion of αv integrin in MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited the expression of mesenchymal markers and the TGF-β/Smad response. TGF-β induced αv integrin mRNA expression and αv integrin was required for TGF-β-induced breast cancer cell migration. Moreover, treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with non-peptide RGD antagonist GLPG0187 decreased TGF-β signaling. In the mouse xenografts GLPG0187 inhibited the progression of bone metastasis. Maximum efficacy of inhibition of bone metastasis was achieved when GLPG0187 was combined with the standard-of-care metastatic breast cancer treatments. These findings show that αv integrin is required for efficient TGF-β/Smad signaling and TGF-β-induced breast cancer cell migration, and for maintaining a mesenchymal phenotype of the breast cancer cells. Our results also provide evidence that targeting αv integrin could be an effective therapeutic approach for treatment of breast cancer tumors and/or metastases that overexpress αv integrin.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 12/2015; 17(1):537. DOI:10.1186/s13058-015-0537-8 · 5.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: TGFβ activity depends on a complex signaling cascade that controls expression of several genes. Among others, TGFβ1 regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) through activation of Smads. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the αvβ6 integrin interacts with TGFβ receptor II (TβRII) through the β6 cytoplasmic domain and promotes Smad3 activation in prostate cancer cells. Another related αv integrin, αvβ5, as well as the αvβ6/3 integrin,which contains a chimeric form of β6 with a β3 cytoplasmic domain, do not associate with TβRII and fail to show similar responses. We provide evidence that αvβ6 is required for upregulation of MMP2 by TGFβ1 through a Smad3-mediated transcriptional program in prostate cancer cells. The functional relevance of these results is underscored by the finding that αvβ6 modulates cell migration in a MMP2-dependent manner on an αvβ6 specific ligand, latency associated peptide (LAP)-TGFβ. Overall, these mechanistic studies establish that expression of a single integrin, αvβ6, is sufficient to promote activation of Smad3, regulation of MMP2 levels, and consequent catalytic activity, as well as cell migration. Our study describes a new TGFβ1\αvβ6\MMP2 signaling pathway that, given TGFβ1 pro-metastatic activity, may have profound implications for prostate cancer therapy.
    Biochemical Journal 01/2015; DOI:10.1042/BJ20140698 · 4.78 Impact Factor