Article

Multiple rare nonsynonymous variants in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene predispose to colorectal adenomas.

Institute of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 02/2008; 68(2):358-63. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-5733
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It has been proposed that multiple rare variants in numerous genes collectively account for a substantial proportion of multifactorial inherited predisposition to a variety of diseases, including colorectal adenomas (CRA). We have studied this hypothesis by sequencing the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in 691 unrelated North American patients with CRAs and 969 matched healthy controls. Rare inherited nonsynonymous variants of APC were significantly overrepresented in patients who did not carry conventional pathogenic mutations in the APC or MutY homologue genes [non-familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) non-MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) patients; 81 of 480, 16.9%] compared with patients with FAP or MAP (20 of 211, 9.5%, P = 0.0113), and this overrepresentation was highest in those non-FAP non-MAP patients with 11 to 99 CRAs (30 of 161, 18.6%, P = 0.0103). Furthermore, significantly more non-FAP non-MAP patients carried rare nonsynonymous variants in the functionally important beta-catenin down-regulating domain compared with healthy controls (32 of 480 versus 37 of 969, P = 0.0166). In silico analyses predicted that approximately 46% of the 61 different variants identified were likely to affect function, and upon testing, 7 of 16 nonsynonymous variants were shown to alter beta-catenin-regulated transcription in vitro. These data suggest that multiple rare nonsynonymous variants in APC play a significant role in predisposing to CRAs.

1 Bookmark
 · 
185 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Sequencing Project is a national, collaborative effort from 3 studies: Framingham Heart Study (FHS), Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC). It uses a case-cohort design, whereby a random sample of study participants is enriched with participants in extremes of traits. Although statistical methods are available to investigate the role of rare variants, few have evaluated their performance in a case-cohort design.ResultsWe evaluate several methods, including the sequence kernel association test (SKAT), Score-Seq, and weighted (Madsen and Browning) and unweighted burden tests. Using genotypes from the CHARGE targeted-sequencing project for FHS (n =¿1096), we simulate phenotypes in a large population for 11 correlated traits and then sample individuals to mimic the CHARGE Sequencing study design. We evaluate type I error and power for 77 targeted regions.Conclusions We provide some guidelines on the performance of these aggregate-based tests to detect associations with rare variants when applied to case-cohort study designs, using CHARGE targeted sequencing data. Type I error is conservative when we consider variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) <¿1%. Power is generally low, although it is relatively larger for Score-Seq. Greater numbers of causal variants and a greater proportion of variance improve the power, but it tends to be lower in the presence of bi-directionality of effects of causal genotypes, especially for Score-Seq.
    BMC Genetics 10/2014; 15(1):104. · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Family-based study design will play a key role in identifying rare causal variants, because rare causal variants can be enriched in families with multiple affected subjects. Furthermore, different from population-based studies, family studies are robust to bias induced by population substructure. It is well known that rare causal variants are difficult to detect from single-locus tests. Therefore, burden tests and non-burden tests have been developed, by combining signals of multiple variants in a chromosomal region or a functional unit. This inevitably incorporates some neutral variants into the test statistics, which can dilute the power of statistical methods. To guard against the noise caused by neutral variants, we here propose an 'adaptive combination of P-values method' (abbreviated as 'ADA'). This method combines per-site P-values of variants that are more likely to be causal. Variants with large P-values (which are more likely to be neutral variants) are discarded from the combined statistic. In addition to performing extensive simulation studies, we applied these tests to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data sets, where real sequence data were generated according to the 1000 Genomes Project. Compared with some existing methods, ADA is more robust to the inclusion of neutral variants. This is a merit especially when dichotomous traits are analyzed. However, there are some limitations for ADA. First, it is more computationally intensive. Second, pedigree structures and founders' sequence data are required for the permutation procedure. Third, unrelated controls cannot be included. We here show that, for family-based studies, the application of ADA is limited to dichotomous trait analyses with full pedigree information.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115971. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The morbidity and mortality attributable to heritable and sporadic carcinomas of the colon are substantial and affect children and adults alike. Despite current colonoscopy screening recommendations colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) still accounts for almost 140000 cancer cases yearly. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a colon cancer predisposition due to alterations in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene, which is mutated in most CRC. Since the beginning of the genomic era next-generation sequencing analyses of CRC continue to improve our understanding of the genetics of tumorigenesis and promise to expand our ability to identify and treat this disease. Advances in genome sequence analysis have facilitated the molecular diagnosis of individuals with FAP, which enables initiation of appropriate monitoring and timely intervention. Genome sequencing also has potential clinical impact for individuals with sporadic forms of CRC, providing means for molecular diagnosis of CRC tumor type, data guiding selection of tumor targeted therapies, and pharmacogenomic profiles specifying patient specific drug tolerances. There is even a potential role for genomic sequencing in surveillance for recurrence, and early detection, of CRC. We review strategies for diagnostic assessment and management of FAP and sporadic CRC in the current genomic era, with emphasis on the current, and potential for future, impact of genome sequencing on the clinical care of these conditions.
    World Journal of Clinical Oncology. 12/2014; 5(5):1036-1047.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
49 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014