Treatment of postnasal drip with proton pump inhibitors: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study
ABSTRACT Patients commonly present with complaints of postnasal drainage (PND) without objective evidence to support a sinonasal or infectious etiology. PND has been attributed to extra-esophageal reflux (EER), and an empiric trial of antireflux medication often is used to treat PND and associated symptoms. This study was performed to (1) evaluate the relationship between symptoms of EER and PND and (2) assess the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in the management of PND.
Patients with a chief complaint of PND without objective evidence of sinonasal inflammatory disease were enrolled in a prospective, double-blinded, randomized placebo-controlled trial using rabeprazole, 20 mg, orally twice daily or placebo for 90 days. Subjects completed two-site 24-hour pharyngeal pH probe monitoring before treatment. Outcome measures included pre- and posttreatment visual analog scales for PND symptoms, reflux symptom index, and reflux finding score (RFS).
Forty-seven patients were enrolled (mean age, 55 years)-21 patients in the PPI group and 26 in the placebo group. Fifty-six percent of subjects had pH probe confirmed EER using a cutoff of pH < 5.0. Baseline symptom measures between subjects with and without EER were not different. Compared with placebo, subjects receiving rabeprazole reported significant reduction in PND frequency (p = 0.0180), hoarseness (p = 0.0164), and chronic cough (p = 0.0204). The RFS decreased slightly in the placebo group (p = 0.1490) whereas it increased slightly in the PPI group (p = 0.5235). This difference between groups was significant (p = 0.0272).
Although 50% of subjects had evidence of EER, there was no difference in baseline symptoms between subjects with and without. Our findings support the potential benefit of PPI therapy for reducing PND frequency, hoarseness, and chronic cough, and confirm a placebo effect for other laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms. The effect on laryngeal findings is mixed and patients may experience symptomatic improvement before changes in laryngoscopic appearance.
Conference Paper: Phase locked loops for array processors[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In modern computers the processor synchronization problem arises. In array processors the clock skew may be significant. The last may lead to the incorrect working of parallel algorithms. The problem of a clock skew in high-speed systems is so important that modern VLSI chips are often supplied by several phase locked loops, placed on one chip. In this case the phase locked loops can be used for creating a distributed system of generators. Here the discrete phase locked loop is considered.Circuits and Systems for Communications, 2002. Proceedings. ICCSC '02. 1st IEEE International Conference on; 02/2002
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ABSTRACT: The present paper examines the recent literature on extra-esophageal reflux and discusses how it affects patient testing and treatment of upper respiratory track inflammatory disease. Assays for pepsin have been developed casting more insight into the pathophysiology of extra-esophageal reflux as well as looking at the role of protective factors in upper respiratory mucosa. Similarities and differences in esophageal and extra-esophageal reflux continue to be explored. Acid suppression in extra-esophageal reflux improves symptoms before physical findings, but some patients do not respond. Mildly acidic (pH > 4) and alkaline reflux are being examined more in extra-esophageal reflux with impedance testing playing a more prominent role. Recent studies have also focused on whether extra-esophageal reflux could affect tissues of the nasopharynx, sinuses, or middle ear. Caution has been issued as acid suppressive therapies have been associated with hip fracture in older patients. Symptoms caused by reflux may reflect underlying weaknesses in mucosal resilience to acid and pepsin in addition to the variations in exposure to gastric contents. In some patients mildly acidic or alkaline reflux may be important and gastric contents may reach the nasopharynx or middle ear. Carefully designed placebo-controlled trials are needed.Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery 07/2008; 16(3):242-6. DOI:10.1097/MOO.0b013e3282fdc3d6 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rabeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) presenting a very advantageous pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile over older PPIs. In particular, this drug has a very fast onset of action, due to a short activation time and a very high pKa, and may therefore be defined as a 'second generation' PPI. The aim of this article is to provide an update on the pharmacology and clinical profile of rabeprazole and its use in acid-related disorders, with a particular focus on its role in gastroesophageal reflux disease; in the treatment and prevention of duodenal and gastric ulcers and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; in the therapy of the extraesophageal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (in particular the respiratory and ear, nose and throat ones); and in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori.Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology 09/2008; 2(4):509-22. DOI:10.1586/17474220.127.116.119 · 2.55 Impact Factor