In vitro and in vivo characterization of porous poly-L-lactic acid coatings for subcutaneously implanted glucose sensors.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that porous poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) sensor coatings reduce fibrosis and promote blood microvessel formation in tissue adjacent to the sensor surface. Porous PLLA coatings were produced using ammonium bicarbonate as the gas foaming/salt leaching agent, and deployed on functional and nonfunctional sensors. The porous coatings minimally affected sensor accuracy and response rate in vitro. Three-week subcutaneous rat studies of nonfunctional glucose sensors showed the anticipated effect of porous coatings enhancing vascularity and decreasing collagen deposition. In contrast, percutaneous functional sensors with and without porous coatings showed no significant difference in terms of histology or sensor response. In spite of the observation that texturing increases the vascularity of the tissue that surrounds implanted sensors, other factors such as the additional mechanical stresses imposed by percutaneous tethering may override the beneficial effects of the porous coatings.
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ABSTRACT: Recent advances in microelectronics and biosensors are enabling developments of innovative biochips for advanced healthcare by providing fully integrated platforms for continuous monitoring of a large set of human disease biomarkers. Continuous monitoring of several human metabolites can be addressed by using fully integrated and minimally invasive devices located in the sub-cutis, typically in the peritoneal region. This extends the techniques of continuous monitoring of glucose currently being pursued with diabetic patients. However, several issues have to be considered in order to succeed in developing fully integrated and minimally invasive implantable devices. These innovative devices require a high-degree of integration, minimal invasive surgery, long-term biocompatibility, security and privacy in data transmission, high reliability, high reproducibility, high specificity, low detection limit and high sensitivity. Recent advances in the field have already proposed possible solutions for several of these issues. The aim of the present paper is to present a broad spectrum of recent results and to propose future directions of development in order to obtain fully implantable systems for the continuous monitoring of the human metabolism in advanced healthcare applications.Sensors 01/2012; 12(8):11013-60. · 1.74 Impact Factor
Article: Biomechanics of the sensor-tissue interface-effects of motion, pressure, and design on sensor performance and foreign body response-part II: examples and application.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article is the second part of a two-part review in which we explore the biomechanics of the sensor-tissue interface as an important aspect of continuous glucose sensor biocompatibility. Part I, featured in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, describes a theoretical framework of how biomechanical factors such as motion and pressure (typically micromotion and micropressure) affect tissue physiology around a sensor and in turn, impact sensor performance. Here in Part II, a literature review is presented that summarizes examples of motion or pressure affecting sensor performance. Data are presented that show how both acute and chronic forces can impact continuous glucose monitor signals. Also presented are potential strategies for countering the ill effects of motion and pressure on glucose sensors. Improved engineering and optimized chemical biocompatibility have advanced sensor design and function, but we believe that mechanical biocompatibility, a rarely considered factor, must also be optimized in order to achieve an accurate, long-term, implantable sensor.Journal of diabetes science and technology 01/2011; 5(3):647-56.
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ABSTRACT: Continuous glucose monitoring devices remain limited in their duration of use due to difficulties presented by the foreign body response (FBR), which impairs sensor functionality immediately following implantation via biofouling and leukocyte infiltration. The FBR persists through the life of the implant, culminating with fibrous encapsulation and isolation from normal tissue. These issues have led researchers to develop strategies to mitigate the FBR and improve tissue integration. Studies have often focused on abating the FBR using various outer coatings, thereby changing the chemical or physical characteristics of the sensor surface. While such strategies have led to some success, they have failed to fully integrate the sensor into surrounding tissue. To further address biocompatibility, researchers have designed coatings capable of actively releasing biological agents (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor, dexamethasone, and nitric oxide) to direct the FBR to induce tissue integration. Active release approaches have proven promising and, when combined with biocompatible coating materials, may ultimately improve the in vivo lifetime of subcutaneous glucose biosensors. This article focuses on strategies currently under development for mitigating the FBR.Journal of diabetes science and technology 09/2011; 5(5):1052-9.