Nox2-derived radicals contribute to neurovascular and behavioral dysfunction in mice overexpressing the amyloid precursor protein.
ABSTRACT Alterations in cerebrovascular regulation related to vascular oxidative stress have been implicated in the mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their role in the amyloid deposition and cognitive impairment associated with AD remains unclear. We used mice overexpressing the Swedish mutation of the amyloid precursor protein (Tg2576) as a model of AD to examine the role of reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase in the cerebrovascular alterations, amyloid deposition, and behavioral deficits observed in these mice. We found that 12- to 15-month-old Tg2576 mice lacking the catalytic subunit Nox2 of NADPH oxidase do not develop oxidative stress, cerebrovascular dysfunction, or behavioral deficits. These improvements occurred without reductions in brain amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) levels or amyloid plaques. The findings unveil a previously unrecognized role of Nox2-derived radicals in the behavioral deficits of Tg2576 mice and provide a link between the neurovascular dysfunction and cognitive decline associated with amyloid pathology.
Article: Vascular remodeling versus amyloid beta-induced oxidative stress in the cerebrovascular dysfunctions associated with Alzheimer's disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The roles of oxidative stress and structural alterations in the cerebrovascular dysfunctions associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were investigated in transgenic mice overexpressing amyloid precusor protein (APP+) or transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF+). Age-related impairments and their in vitro reversibility were evaluated, and underlying pathogenic mechanisms were assessed and compared with those seen in AD brains. Vasoconstrictions to 5-HT and endothelin-1 were preserved, except in the oldest (18-21 months of age) TGF+ mice. Despite unaltered relaxations to sodium nitroprusside, acetylcholine (ACh) and calcitonin gene-related peptide-mediated dilatations were impaired, and there was an age-related deficit in the basal availability of nitric oxide (NO) that progressed more gradually in TGF+ mice. The expression and progression of these deficits were unrelated to the onset or extent of thioflavin-S-positive vessels. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) was upregulated in pial vessels and around brain microvessels of APP+ mice, pointing to a role of superoxide in the dysfunctions elicited by amyloidosis. In contrast, vascular wall remodeling associated with decreased levels of endothelial NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 and increased contents of vascular endothelial growth factor and collagen-I and -IV characterized TGF+ mice. Exogenous SOD or catalase normalized ACh dilatations and NO availability in vessels from aged APP+ mice but had no effect in those of TGF+ mice. Increased perivascular oxidative stress was not evidenced in AD brains, but vascular wall alterations compared well with those seen in TGF+ mice. We conclude that brain vessel remodeling and associated alterations in levels of vasoactive signaling molecules are key contributors to AD cerebrovascular dysfunctions.Journal of Neuroscience 12/2005; 25(48):11165-74. · 7.11 Impact Factor