Intracoronary genistein acutely increases coronary blood flow in anesthetized pigs through beta-adrenergic mediated nitric oxide release and estrogenic receptors.
ABSTRACT Various studies have suggested that the phytoestrogen genistein has beneficial cardioprotective and vascular effects. However, there has been scarce information regarding the primary effect of genistein on coronary blood flow and its mechanisms including estrogen receptors, autonomic nervous system, and nitric oxide (NO). The present study was planned to determine the primary effect of genistein on coronary blood flow and the mechanisms involved. In anesthetized pigs, changes in left anterior descending coronary artery caused by intracoronary infusion of genistein at constant heart rate and arterial pressure were assessed using ultrasound flowmeters. In 25 pigs, genistein infused at 0.075 mg/min increased coronary blood flow by about 16.3%. This response was graded in a further five pigs by increasing the infused dose of the genistein between 0.007 and 0.147 mg/min. In the 25 pigs, blockade of cholinergic receptors (iv atropine; five pigs) and alpha-adrenergic receptors (iv phentolamine; five pigs) did not abolish the coronary response to genistein, whose effects were prevented by blockade of beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (iv butoxamine; five pigs), nitric oxide synthase (intracoronary N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; five pigs) and estrogenic receptors (ERs; ERalpha/ERbeta; intracoronary fulvestrant; five pigs). In porcine aortic endothelial cells, genistein induced the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and NO production through ERK 1/2, Akt, and p38 MAPK pathways, which was prevented by the concomitant treatment by butoxamine and fulvestrant. In conclusion, genistein primarily caused coronary vasodilation the mechanism of which involved ERalpha/ERbeta and the release of NO through vasodilatory beta(2)-adrenoreceptor effects.
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ABSTRACT: The M(5) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is known to play a crucial role in mediating acetylcholine dependent dilation of cerebral blood vessels. Previously, we reported that male M(5) muscarinic acetylcholine knockout mice (M5R(-/-) mice) suffer from a constitutive constriction of cerebral arteries, reduced cerebral blood flow, dendritic atrophy, and short-term memory loss, without necrosis and/or inflammation in the brain. We employed the Magnetic Resonance Angiography to study the area of the basilar artery in male and female M5R(-/-) mice. Here we show that female M5R(-/-) mice did not show the reduction in vascular area observed in male M5R(-/-) mice. However, ovariectomized female M5R(-/-) mice displayed phenotypic changes similar to male M5R(-/-) mice, strongly suggesting that estrogen plays a key role in the observed gender differences. We found that 17beta-estradiol (E2) induced nitric oxide release and ERK activation in a conditional immortalized mouse brain cerebrovascular endothelial cell line. Agonists of ERalpha, ERbeta, and GPR30 promoted ERK activation in this cell line. Moreover, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that the cross section of the basilar artery was restored to normal in male M5R(-/-) mice treated with E2. Treatment with E2 also improved the performance of male M5R(-/-) mice in a cognitive test and reduced the atrophy of neural dendrites in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. M5R(-/-) mice also showed astrocyte swelling in cortex and hippocampus using the three-dimensional reconstruction of electron microscope images. This phenotype was reversed by E2 treatment, similar to the observed deficits in dendrite morphology and the number of synapses. Our findings indicate that M5R(-/-) mice represent an excellent novel model system to study the beneficial effects of estrogen on cerebrovascular function and cognition. E2 may offer new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of cerebrovascular insufficiency related memory dysfunction.PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(4):e5159. · 4.09 Impact Factor