A new phylogenetic group of Propionibacterium acnes

School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen's University, Belfast BT12 6BN, UK.
Journal of Medical Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.25). 03/2008; 57(Pt 2):218-24. DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.47489-0
Source: PubMed


Immunofluorescence microscopy-based identification of presumptive Propionibacterium acnes isolates, using the P. acnes-specific mAb QUBPa3, revealed five organisms with an atypical cellular morphology. Unlike the coryneform morphology seen with P. acnes types I and II, these isolates exhibited long slender filaments (which formed large tangled aggregates) not previously described in P. acnes. No reaction with mAbs that label P. acnes types IA (QUBPa1) and II (QUBPa2) was observed. Nucleotide sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (1484 bp) revealed the isolates to have between 99.8 and 99.9 % identity to the 16S rRNA gene of the P. acnes type IA, IB and II strains NCTC 737, KPA171202 and NCTC 10390, respectively. Analysis of the recA housekeeping gene (1047 bp) did reveal, however, a greater number of conserved nucleotide polymorphisms between the sequences from these isolates and those from NCTC 737 (98.9 % identity), KPA171202 (98.9 % identity) and NCTC 10390 (99.1 % identity). Phylogenetic investigations demonstrated that the isolates belong to a novel recA cluster or lineage distinct from P. acnes types I and II. We now propose this new grouping as P. acnes type III. The prevalence and clinical importance of this novel recA lineage amongst isolates of P. acnes remains to be determined.

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Available from: Andrew McDowell, Apr 03, 2014
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    • "Obsolete tests (serological agglutination and carbohydrate analysis of the cell wall) were used to classify strains of P. acnes in 3 different phenotypes (type I, II, and III). The distinction between types IA, IB, IC, II, and III are now based on the sequence analysis of 2 genes: recA gene, a non-ribosomal gene, and tly gene, a housekeeping gene encoding a hemolysin/cytotoxin [11]. Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor, especially responsible for nosocomial infections . "
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    ABSTRACT: Propionibacterium acnes colonise l’environnement riche en lipides des glandes pilo-sébacés de la peau. L’identification de ce micro-organisme anaérobie préférentiel est favorisée par la prolongation des cultures. Cette bactérie est impliquée dans les processus inflammatoires de l’acné et était jusqu’à récemment négligée dans d’autres situations cliniques. Malgré une faible virulence rapportée, les nouvelles études génomiques, phylogénétiques et transcriptomiques ont permis de mieux comprendre l’importance de ce pathogène à l’origine de nombreuses infections chroniques et récidivantes notamment celles liées aux prothèses orthopédiques, cardiaques, mammaires et implants oculaires. Ces infections, facilitées par la capacité de P. acnes à produire un biofilm, nécessitent d’utiliser des antibiotiques ayant une activité anti-biofilm comme la rifampicine. En raison de sa sensibilité à de nombreux antibiotiques, l’antibiogramme de P. acnes n’est pas réalisé de manière systématique dans les laboratoires de Microbiologie. Cependant, depuis 10 ans, la proportion de bactéries résistantes aux antibiotiques a augmenté, notamment vis-à-vis des macrolides et des tétracyclines. Par ailleurs, des mutations dans le gène rpoB conférant la résistance à la rifampicine ont été rapportées récemment. Dans ce contexte et en présence de biofilm, la stratégie thérapeutique doit être discutée, en fonction du phylotype et du phénotype de résistance, afin d’optimiser le traitement de ces infections graves.
    Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses 06/2014; 44(6). DOI:10.1016/j.medmal.2014.02.004 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    • "2b-c and supplementary fig. S3; for a description of P. acnes population structure see McDowell et al. 2008; note that more clones were amplified from each plant, for a total of 51 sequences per gene). Since all of the three phylogenies of figure 2 are rooted using P. avidum, which like P. acnes is found mainly on humans, our results support a human origin for the endophytic P. Zappae. "
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    ABSTRACT: Here we report the surprising and, to our knowledge, unique example of horizontal interkingdom transfer of a human opportunistic pathogen (Propionibacterium acnes) to a crop plant (the domesticated grapevine Vitis vinifera L.). Humans, like most organisms, have established a long-lasting cohabitation with a variety of microbes, including pathogens and gut-associated bacteria. Studies which have investigated the dynamics of such associations revealed numerous cases of bacterial host switches from domestic animals to humans. Much less is, however, known about the exchange of microbial symbionts between humans and plants. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization localized P. acnes in the bark, in xylem fibers, and, more interestingly, inside pith tissues. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses suggest that the establishment of the grapevine-associated P. acnes as obligate endophyte is compatible with a recent transfer event, likely during the Neolithic, when grapevine was domesticated.
    Molecular Biology and Evolution 02/2014; 31(5). DOI:10.1093/molbev/msu075 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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    • "According to serological agglutination tests and cell wall carbohydrate analysis, P. acnes can be classified into two different phylotypes (type I and II) [27] [28]. By sequence analysis of two genes, a nonribosomal housekeeping gene (recA) and a gene encoding a putative hemolysin/cytotoxin (tly gene), further discrimination into phylogenetically distinct clusters (type IA, IB, IC, II, and III) is possible [29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The role of Propionibacterium acnes in acne and in a wide range of inflammatory diseases is well established. However, P. acnes is also responsible for infections involving implants. Prolonged aerobic and anaerobic agar cultures for 14 days and broth cultures increase the detection rate. In this paper, we review the pathogenic role of P. acnes in implant-associated infections such as prosthetic joints, cardiac devices, breast implants, intraocular lenses, neurosurgical devices, and spine implants. The management of severe infections caused by P. acnes involves a combination of antimicrobial and surgical treatment (often removal of the device). Intravenous penicillin G and ceftriaxone are the first choice for serious infections, with vancomycin and daptomycin as alternatives, and amoxicillin, rifampicin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin for oral treatment. Sonication of explanted prosthetic material improves the diagnosis of implant-associated infections. Molecular methods may further increase the sensitivity of P. acnes detection. Coating of implants with antimicrobial substances could avoid or limit colonization of the surface and thereby reduce the risk of biofilm formation during severe infections. Our understanding of the role of P. acnes in human diseases will likely continue to increase as new associations and pathogenic mechanisms are discovered.
    11/2013; 2013(1):804391. DOI:10.1155/2013/804391
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