Charged nanoparticles delivery to the eye using hydrogel iontophoresis.
ABSTRACT Ocular iontophoresis has been investigated for many years as a non-invasive technique for enhancing ionized drug penetration through ocular tissues. In this study we assessed the penetration of charged fluorescent nanoparticles into rabbit eyes using hydrogel iontophoresis. Particle distribution into ocular tissues and penetration efficiency of negative nanoparticles compared with positive nanoparticles was also evaluated. Cathodal and anodal iontophoretic administrations were performed using polyacrylic hydrogels loaded with charged nanoparticle suspension (20-45 nm), applying a current intensity of 1.5 mA for 5 min onto the cornea and sclera. At pre-set time points post treatment, eyes were dissected and tissues were evaluated for fluorescence intensity. Strong fluorescence evidence was observed at anterior and posterior ocular tissues. Negative particle distribution profile revealed fast uptake into the outer ocular tissues, within 30 min post treatment, followed by particle migration into the inner tissues up to 12 h post treatment. The positively charged particles demonstrated better penetration abilities into inner ocular tissues compared to the negatively charge particles. This work provides an opening for the development of a new ocular therapeutic pathway using iontophoresis of extended release drug-loaded charged nanoparticles.
- Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. 05/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Ocular drug transport barriers pose a challenge for drug delivery comprising the ocular surface epithelium, the tear film and internal barriers of the blood-aqueous and blood-retina barriers. Ocular drug delivery efficiency depends on the barriers and the clearance from the choroidal, conjunctival vessels and lymphatic. Traditional drug administration reduces the clinical efficacy especially for poor water soluble molecules and for the posterior segment of the eye. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been designed to overcome the barriers, increase the drug penetration at the target site and prolong the drug levels by few internals of drug administrations in lower doses without any toxicity compared to the conventional eye drops. With the aid of high specificity and multifunctionality, DNA NPs can be resulted in higher transfection efficiency for gene therapy. NPs could target at cornea, retina and choroid by surficial applications and intravitreal injection. This review is concerned with recent findings and applications of NPs drug delivery systems for the treatment of different eye diseases.International Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2013; 6(3):390-6. · 0.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The basic concepts, major mechanisms, technological developments and advantages of the topical application of lipid-based systems (microemulsions, nanoemulsions, liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles), polymeric systems (hydrogels, contact lenses, polymeric nanoparticles and dendrimers) and physical methods (iontophoresis and sonophoresis) will be reviewed. Although very convenient for patients, topical administration of conventional drug formulations for the treatment of eye diseases requires high drug doses, frequent administration and rarely provides high drug bioavailability. Thus, strategies to improve the efficacy of topical treatments have been extensively investigated. In general, the majority of the successful delivery systems are present on the ocular surface over an extended period of time, and these systems typically improve drug bioavailability in the anterior chamber whereas the physical methods facilitate drug penetration over a very short period of time through ocular barriers, such as the cornea and sclera. Although in the early stages, the combination of these delivery systems with physical methods would appear to be a promising tool to decrease the dose and frequency of administration; thereby, patient compliance and treatment efficacy will be improved.The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 04/2014; 66(4):507-30.