Safety and efficacy of cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarpon) during pregnancy and lactation

Graduate Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leslie Dan Facility of Pharmacy, University ofToronto, Canada.
The Canadian journal of clinical pharmacology = Journal canadien de pharmacologie clinique 02/2008; 15(1):e80-6.
Source: PubMed


There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbs used during pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for herbs commonly used during pregnancy and lactation.
To systematically review the literature for evidence on the use, safety and pharmacology of cranberry, focusing on issues pertaining to pregnancy and lactation.
We searched 7 electronic databases and compiled data according to the grade of evidence found.
There is no direct evidence of safety or harm to the mother or fetus as a result of consuming cranberry during pregnancy. Indirectly, there is good scientific evidence that cranberry may be of minimal risk, where a survey of 400 pregnant women did not uncover any adverse events when cranberry was regularly consumed. In lactation, the safety or harm of cranberry is unknown.
Women experience urinary tract infections with greater frequency during pregnancy. Given the evidence to support the use of cranberry for urinary tract infections (UTIs) and its safety profile, cranberry supplementation as fruit or fruit juice may be a valuable therapeutic choice in the treatment of UTIs during pregnancy.

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    • "+ - - - 0.0781 + - - - 0.391 + - - - 0.0195 + - + + 0.0098 + + + + 0.0049 + + + + 0.0024 + + + + (Zafriri et al., 1989; Dugoua et al., 2008 "
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    ABSTRACT: Cranberries have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs). The objective of this study was to determine in vitro activity of cranberry extract on common etiologic agents of urinary tract infections isolated from patients. Filter sterilized methanol extract of cranberry was prepared and used in the present study. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated for active crude extract. The MIC value of methanol extract were 0.391 mg/ml for Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus whereas the MIC of methanol extract of cranberry were 1.2500 and 0.0195 mg/ml for Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae respectively. The lower MIC value of cranberry extract against K. pneumoniae in comparison to other three organisms suggests that K. pneumoniae showed greater sensitivity towards the extracts of the cranberry extract.
    African journal of pharmacy and pharmacology 05/2010; 4(5):286-288. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    • "No serious adverse effects are known from cranberry fruit. Recently, the safety of cranberry products in pregnancy and lactation has been assessed as safe [28]. In adults, even high amounts of cranberry juice appear to be non-toxic, with the exception of people with a history of nephrolithiasis. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study compares the effects of daily cranberry juice to those of Lactobacillus in children with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Eighty-four girls aged between 3 and 14 years were randomized to cranberry, Lactobacillus or control in three treatment arms: G1, cranberry juice 50 ml daily (n=28); G2, 100 ml of Lactobacillus GG drink on 5 days a month (n=27); and G3, controls (n=29). The study lasted for 6 months. Only four subjects withdrew: 1/28 (3.5%) from G1, 1/27 (3.7%) from G2 and 2/29 (6.8%) from G3, because of poor compliance to the established protocol. There were 34 episodes of UTIs in this cohort: 5/27 (18.5%) in G1, 11/26 (42.3%) in G2 and 18/27 (48.1%) in the G3, with at least one episode of infection (p<0.05). These data suggest that daily consumption of concentrated cranberry juice can significantly prevent the recurrence of symptomatic UTIs in children.
    Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 01/2009; 43(5):369-72. DOI:10.3109/00365590902936698 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cranberry juice (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is a widely used and recommended North-American folk remedy for prophylaxis of urinary tract infections (UTI). Clinical trials have documented its efficacy in women with recurrent UTI, but so far not in other groups of patients. The composition of effective cranberry products and its dosage in UTI prophylaxis have not been defined. Intriguing experimental research has identified an anti-adhesive mechanism of cranberry juice that prevents docking of bacteria on host tissues. This efficacy mechanism can be traced in patients’ urine following oral intake of cranberry products and appears to be due to proanthocyanidins with an A-type linkage of flavanols. The application of this anti-adhesion mechanism of cranberry-proanthocyandins is currently also investigated in other common diseases of bacterial pathogenesis, for example Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and dental caries/periodontal disease. The use of cranberry products appears to be safe and provide additional benefits by anti-oxidant and cholesterol-lowering activity.
    Phytomedicine 09/2008; 15(9):653-667. DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2008.07.009 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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