Pentoxifylline ameliorates lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus in young rats.
ABSTRACT The neuroprotective effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) against lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pc)-induced status epilepticus (SE) in young rats are described. Animals treated with PTX (0, 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg) before induction of SE were examined for latency to and frequency of SE, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, neurochemical alterations in the hippocampus and striatum, and histological abnormalities in the hippocampus. Treatment with PTX significantly ameliorated the frequency and severity of epileptic seizures in a dose-dependent manner. Our behavioral studies using the elevated plus-maze, rotarod, and water maze tests suggested a significant reduction in anxiety, enhanced motor performance, and improved learning and memory in PTX-treated rats. Li-Pc-induced neuronal cell loss and sprouting of mossy fibers in the hippocampus were also attenuated by PTX. The neuroprotective activity of PTX was accompanied by reduction in oxidative stress and reversal of SE-induced depletion of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in hippocampus and striatum. The results of this study provide a good rationale to explore the prophylactic/therapeutic potential of PTX in SE.