Prevalence and associated features of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in a Caucasian-predominant adolescent school population
ABSTRACT To determine the prevalence of esophageal symptoms and associated symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in 14-18 year-old high school students and the percentage of symptomatic adolescents who saw a physician or received medications.
A cross-sectional questionnaire administered to students at two high schools.
1,286 completed questionnaires were analyzed. The study sample consisted of 57% Caucasians and 57% males, with a mean age of 15.7 (+/-1.3) years.
No intervention was used. Participants completed questionnaires only.
714 students (56%) reported at least one esophageal or respiratory symptom. Esophageal symptoms reported were: heartburn (22%), regurgitation (21%), and dysphagia (15%). Respiratory symptoms reported were: shortness of breath (24%), wheezing (20%), and cough (18%). Students with at least one esophageal symptom were more likely to experience at least one respiratory symptom than were students with no esophageal symptoms (52% vs. 25%; p < 0.001). Cigarette, alcohol, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use were risk factors for both respiratory and esophageal symptoms. Of those experiencing one or more of these symptoms, 4% reported that the symptoms affected their daily activities, 23% visited a physician, and 25% took medication in the past year.
Esophageal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux are frequent in adolescents. Fewer than 25% of students with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms consulted a physician and/or took medications.
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ABSTRACT: To review the literature on the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with emphasis on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), particularly on delayed-release esomeprazole, and to identify properties and adverse effects of PPIs observed in the treatment of GERD in children and adolescents. Electronic search of PubMed/Medline and Cochrane Collaboration databases, and of abstracts on DDW, NASPGHAN, and ESPGHAN. We focused on controlled and randomized studies published since 2000 and identified reviews that presented a consensual position, and directives published within the last 10 years. PPIs are considered better antisecretory agents than H(2)-receptor antagonists. Although all PPIs are similar, they are not identical in their pharmacologic properties. For example, the acid-suppressive effect of esomeprazole, the S-isomer of omeprazole, persists for more than 16 hours after administration of the morning dose. Therefore, it can control acidity after night meals better than a single dose of omeprazole. Moreover, the onset of the suppressive effect of esomeprazole is faster. It achieves acid inhibition faster than other PPIs. Currently, the mainstream treatment for GERD in children is a PPI. Although PPIs are safe drugs, effective in healing erosive esophagitis, and in relieving symptoms, studies with esomeprazole have shown that this drug has as powerful an ability to inhibit acid secretion as omeprazole. It also seems that some pharmacologic properties of esomeprazole are actually better for the treatment of GERD.Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 10/2010; 6:531-7. DOI:10.2147/TCRM.S14425 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is common in adolescents, the burden of GERD on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents has not been previously evaluated. Therefore, the objective of the study was to examine the effect of GERD on HRQOL in adolescents. This international, 31-site, 8-week safety study randomized adolescents, aged 12 to 17 years inclusive, with GERD to receive esomeprazole 20 or 40 mg once daily. The Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia questionnaire (QOLRAD), previously validated in adults, consists of 25 questions grouped into 5 domains: emotional distress, sleep disturbance, food/drink problems, physical/social functioning, and vitality. The QOLRAD was administered at the baseline and week-8 (final) visits. Of the 149 patients randomized, 134 completed the QOLRAD at baseline and final visits and were eligible for analysis of their HRQOL data. Baseline QOLRAD scores indicated GERD had a negative effect on the HRQOL of these adolescents, especially in the domains of vitality and emotional distress, and problems with food/drink. At the final visit, mean scores for all 5 QOLRAD domains improved significantly (P < .0001); change of scores (ie, delta) for all domains met or exceeded the adult QOLRAD minimal clinically significant difference standard of 0.5 units. GERD had a negative effect on QOL in adolescents. After esomeprazole treatment, statistically and clinically significant improvements occurred in all domains of the QOLRAD for these adolescents. D9614C00098; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00241501.BMC Gastroenterology 11/2009; 9(1):84. DOI:10.1186/1471-230X-9-84 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of GERD is made by using a combination of clinical symptoms, pH study, endoscopy, and histology. Histologic changes include basal cell hyperplasia and papillary elongation. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) enables surface and subsurface imaging of living cells in vivo at ×1000 magnification and up to 250 μm below the tissue surface. In the esophagus, the distance between the surface to papillary (S-P) tip can be measured by using CLE. To measure the S-P distance in the esophagus in patients with reflux esophagitis and controls by using CLE and comparing with histologic measurements. Retrospective analysis of a prospective database. Endoscopy unit of a tertiary-care children's hospital. This study involved 7 patients (5 female) with a median age of 7.6 years (range 1.8-15.5 years) and median weight of 23 kg (range 13.2-71 kg) and 16 controls with a median age of 12.0 years (range 2.2-15.3 years) and median weight of 38.2 kg (range 10.7-83 kg). S-P distance was measured both by CLE and histology and was corrected for height for both patients and controls and the results compared. To determine if there were significant differences in the S-P distance in patients with esophagitis and controls. The median confocal and histologic measurements for S-P distance, corrected for patient height, were 0.19 μm/cm (range 0.10-0.49 μm/cm) and 0.58 μm/cm (range 0.29-0.76 μm/cm) and for controls were 0.44 μm/cm (range 0.20-0.93 μm/cm) and 1.07 μm/cm (range 0.76-0.1.57 μm/cm), respectively. Small numbers involved in the study, reliance on only papillary elongation in arriving at a diagnosis. Measurement of the S-P distance by CLE will enable real-time diagnosis of GERD-related esophagitis during ongoing endoscopy.Gastrointestinal endoscopy 01/2012; 75(4):864-9. DOI:10.1016/j.gie.2011.11.013 · 4.90 Impact Factor