Prevalence and associated features of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in a Caucasian-predominant adolescent school population
ABSTRACT To determine the prevalence of esophageal symptoms and associated symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in 14-18 year-old high school students and the percentage of symptomatic adolescents who saw a physician or received medications.
A cross-sectional questionnaire administered to students at two high schools.
1,286 completed questionnaires were analyzed. The study sample consisted of 57% Caucasians and 57% males, with a mean age of 15.7 (+/-1.3) years.
No intervention was used. Participants completed questionnaires only.
714 students (56%) reported at least one esophageal or respiratory symptom. Esophageal symptoms reported were: heartburn (22%), regurgitation (21%), and dysphagia (15%). Respiratory symptoms reported were: shortness of breath (24%), wheezing (20%), and cough (18%). Students with at least one esophageal symptom were more likely to experience at least one respiratory symptom than were students with no esophageal symptoms (52% vs. 25%; p < 0.001). Cigarette, alcohol, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use were risk factors for both respiratory and esophageal symptoms. Of those experiencing one or more of these symptoms, 4% reported that the symptoms affected their daily activities, 23% visited a physician, and 25% took medication in the past year.
Esophageal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux are frequent in adolescents. Fewer than 25% of students with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms consulted a physician and/or took medications.
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ABSTRACT: Adolescence is critical in the habituation of diverse lifestyles and is a base for future physical well-being. Although gastrointestinal disorders are frequently reported in adolescents, studies related to GI drug use or related factors in Korean adolescents are rare. Thus, this study examined Korean adolescents for the use of GI drugs for abdominal symptoms and analyzed the associated factors. This cross-sectional study was done with a total of 2,416 students who completed a given questionnaire. The health-related questions included GI medication intake, smoking, alcohol, caffeine, regular exercise, self-cognitive health level, GI symptom, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) intake, and sleep problems. In questions about GI medication intake, drugs included digestives and antacids. And the intake of GI drugs more than once during the past 1 month was regarded as taking GI drugs. The sociodemographic questions included age, gender, grade, number of close friends, extracurricular activities, and school performance. The overall prevalence for taking GI drugs, including antacids and digestives, was 17.4 %. When students taking GI drugs were compared with those not taking GI drugs, the former group showed higher rates of girls (P < 0.001) and participants in extracurricular activities (P < 0.05) than the latter group. Factors including alcohol, caffeine, self-cognitive health levels, and GI symptoms showed statistical significance with the rate of GI drug intake. The rate of GI drug intake in NSAID users was 2.7 times higher than that in non-users (P < 0.001). The prevalence rate of every sleep problem was higher in students taking GI medications except snoring, witnessed apnea, and teeth grinding. From the multiple regression, it was found that gender (female), extracurricular activities, alcohol intake, self-cognitive health levels, NSAIDs intake, and nightmares were related factors to GI drug intake. Based on the results, it was conclude that encouragement to build healthy lifestyle habits in adolescents is very important for their academic performances and health status in adulthood.Archives of Pharmacal Research 08/2013; 36(10). DOI:10.1007/s12272-013-0220-5 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is common in adults and there are increasing secular trends in adult GERD morbidity in many countries. However, population-based study on adolescent GERD was very limited. The specific aims of the study were to explore the prevalence and determinant of GERD symptoms in adolescents. A population-based association study was performed on 1,828 students aged 13-16 years from 4 public junior high schools in Taiwan. The presences of symptoms of GERD, asthma and food allergy, demographic characteristics, and health behaviors were obtained by structured questionnaires. Complete information of symptoms of GERD and asthma were available for 1,745 (95.5%) students. The cumulative and 3-month prevalence rates of GERD symptoms were 20.5% and 8.9%, respectively. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of having experienced GERD symptoms were 1.53 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-1.98) for ever smoking, 1.52 (95% CI: 1.12-2.26) for bi-ethnicity, 1.70 (95% CI: 1.26-2.29) for food allergy, and 3.59 (95% CI: 2.69-4.82) and 2.43 (95% CI: 1.67-3.53) for having asthma attacks within or more than one year before, respectively. Similar results were found for 3-month prevalence. The study showed that GERD symptoms were frequent in junior high school students in Taiwan. Food allergy, asthma and cigarette smoking were independently correlated with the prevalence of GERD symptoms. Psychosocial factors associated with bi-ethnic family may contribute to its development.Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 07/2013; DOI:10.1111/jgh.12330 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of GERD is made by using a combination of clinical symptoms, pH study, endoscopy, and histology. Histologic changes include basal cell hyperplasia and papillary elongation. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) enables surface and subsurface imaging of living cells in vivo at ×1000 magnification and up to 250 μm below the tissue surface. In the esophagus, the distance between the surface to papillary (S-P) tip can be measured by using CLE. To measure the S-P distance in the esophagus in patients with reflux esophagitis and controls by using CLE and comparing with histologic measurements. Retrospective analysis of a prospective database. Endoscopy unit of a tertiary-care children's hospital. This study involved 7 patients (5 female) with a median age of 7.6 years (range 1.8-15.5 years) and median weight of 23 kg (range 13.2-71 kg) and 16 controls with a median age of 12.0 years (range 2.2-15.3 years) and median weight of 38.2 kg (range 10.7-83 kg). S-P distance was measured both by CLE and histology and was corrected for height for both patients and controls and the results compared. To determine if there were significant differences in the S-P distance in patients with esophagitis and controls. The median confocal and histologic measurements for S-P distance, corrected for patient height, were 0.19 μm/cm (range 0.10-0.49 μm/cm) and 0.58 μm/cm (range 0.29-0.76 μm/cm) and for controls were 0.44 μm/cm (range 0.20-0.93 μm/cm) and 1.07 μm/cm (range 0.76-0.1.57 μm/cm), respectively. Small numbers involved in the study, reliance on only papillary elongation in arriving at a diagnosis. Measurement of the S-P distance by CLE will enable real-time diagnosis of GERD-related esophagitis during ongoing endoscopy.Gastrointestinal endoscopy 01/2012; 75(4):864-9. DOI:10.1016/j.gie.2011.11.013 · 4.90 Impact Factor