Variation in HIV-1 R5 macrophage-tropism correlates with sensitivity to reagents that block envelope: CD4 interactions but not with sensitivity to other entry inhibitors

Center for AIDS Research, Program in Molecular Medicine and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, 373 Plantation Street, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.
Retrovirology (Impact Factor: 4.19). 02/2008; 5(1):5. DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-5-5
Source: PubMed


HIV-1 R5 viruses cause most of the AIDS cases worldwide and are preferentially transmitted compared to CXCR4-using viruses. Furthermore, R5 viruses vary extensively in capacity to infect macrophages and highly macrophage-tropic variants are frequently identified in the brains of patients with dementia. Here, we investigated the sensitivity of R5 envelopes to a range of inhibitors and antibodies that block HIV entry. We studied a large panel of R5 envelopes, derived by PCR amplification without culture from brain, lymph node, blood and semen. These R5 envelopes conferred a wide range of macrophage tropism and included highly macrophage-tropic variants from brain and non-macrophage-tropic variants from lymph node.
R5 macrophage-tropism correlated with sensitivity to inhibition by reagents that inhibited gp120:CD4 interactions. Thus, increasing macrophage-tropism was associated with increased sensitivity to soluble CD4 and to IgG-CD4 (PRO 542), but with increased resistance to the anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (mab), Q4120. These observations were highly significant and are consistent with an increased affinity of envelope for CD4 for macrophage-tropic envelopes. No overall correlations were noted between R5 macrophage-tropism and sensitivity to CCR5 antagonists or to gp41 specific reagents. Intriguingly, there was a relationship between increasing macrophage-tropism and increased sensitivity to the CD4 binding site mab, b12, but decreased sensitivity to 2G12, a mab that binds a glycan complex on gp120.
Variation in R5 macrophage-tropism is caused by envelope variation that predominantly influences sensitivity to reagents that block gp120:CD4 interactions. Such variation has important implications for therapy using viral entry inhibitors and for the design of envelope antigens for vaccines.

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Available from: Dennis R Burton, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "Finally, studies from other groups have implicated a more efficient or altered engagement with CCR5 for macrophage-tropic R5 envelopes including those in the brain [51,74]. However, this has not been evident in our studies using maraviroc here or other CCR5 antagonists in previous studies [52]. Nor have we detected consistent differences in infectivity assays using HeLa cell lines expressing different levels of CCR5 [12,13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Transmitted HIV-1 clade B or C R5 viruses have been reported to infect macrophages inefficiently, while other studies have described R5 viruses in late disease with either an enhanced macrophage-tropism or carrying envelopes with an increased positive charge and fitness. In contrast, our previous data suggested that viruses carrying non-macrophage-tropic R5 envelopes were still predominant in immune tissue of AIDS patients. To further investigate the tropism and charge of HIV-1 viruses in late disease, we evaluated the properties of HIV-1 envelopes amplified from immune and brain tissues of AIDS patients with neurological complications. Almost all envelopes amplified were R5. There was clear compartmentalization of envelope sequences for four of the five subjects. However, strong compartmentalization of macrophage-tropism in brain was observed even when brain and immune tissue envelope sequences were not segregated. R5 envelopes from immune tissue of four subjects carried a higher positive charge compared to brain envelopes. We also confirm a significant correlation between macrophage tropism and sensitivity to soluble CD4, a weak association with sensitivity to the CD4 binding site antibody, b12, but no clear relationship with maraviroc sensitivity. Our study shows that non-macrophage-tropic R5 envelopes carrying gp120s with an increased positive charge were predominant in immune tissue in late disease. However, highly macrophage-tropic variants with lower charged gp120s were nearly universal in the brain. These results are consistent with HIV-1 R5 envelopes evolving gp120s with an increased positive charge in immune tissue or sites outside the brain that likely reflect an adaptation for increased replication or fitness for CD4+ T-cells. Our data are consistent with the presence of powerful pressures in brain and in immune tissues selecting for R5 envelopes with very different properties; high macrophage-tropism, sCD4 sensitivity and low positive charge in brain and non-macrophage-tropism, sCD4 resistance and high positive charge in immune tissue.
    Retrovirology 03/2012; 9(1):20. DOI:10.1186/1742-4690-9-20 · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    • "Neutralization assays were done using pseudovirions carrying envelopes from NL4.3wt and NL4.3 T373R (NL4.3-R). HeLa TZM-bl cells were used as targets, and residual infectivity was assessed by measuring luciferase activity [8]. We found that neutralization of NL4.3 by each of the mabs was unaffected or only weakly affected by the R373/N386 glycan combination (Figure 2). "
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    ABSTRACT: The conserved CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on HIV-1 gp120 is a major target for vaccines. It is a priority to determine sites and structures within the CD4bs that are important for inclusion in vaccines. We studied a gp120 pocket penetrated by W100 of the potent CD4bs monoclonal antibody (mab), b12. We compared HIV-1 envelopes and corresponding mutants that carried blocked W100 pockets to evaluate whether other CD4bs mabs target this site. All CD4bs mabs tested blocked soluble CD4 binding to gp120 consistent with their designation as CD4bs directed antibodies. All CD4bs mabs tested neutralized pseudovirions carrying NL4.3 wild type (wt) envelope. However, only b12 failed to neutralize pseudoviruses carrying mutant envelopes with a blocked W100 pocket. In addition, for CD4bs mabs that neutralized pseudovirions carrying primary envelopes, mutation of the W100 pocket had little or no effect on neutralization sensitivity. Our data indicate that the b12 W100 pocket on gp120 is infrequently targeted by CD4bs mabs. This site is therefore not a priority for preservation in vaccines aiming to elicit antibodies targeting the CD4bs.
    Retrovirology 01/2012; 9(1):9. DOI:10.1186/1742-4690-9-9 · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    • "Although mac-tropic Envs display increased sensitivity to inhibitors of CD4 binding, implicating the CD4bs [14,61,64,101,105,106], the relationship between the R5 Env properties of mac-tropism or MRC, and neutralization sensitivity to NAbs targeting the CD4bs, is less clear. Originally, Gray and colleagues demonstrated an association between R5 mac-tropism/MRC and sensitivity to b12 [14], confirmed separately by Dunfee and colleagues [67]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages are important target cells for HIV-1 infection that play significant roles in the maintenance of viral reservoirs and other aspects of pathogenesis. Understanding the determinants of HIV-1 tropism for macrophages will inform HIV-1 control and eradication strategies. Tropism for macrophages is both qualitative (infection or not) and quantitative (replication capacity). For example many R5 HIV-1 isolates cannot infect macrophages, but for those that can the macrophage replication capacity can vary by up to 1000-fold. Some X4 viruses are also capable of replication in macrophages, indicating that cellular tropism is partially independent of co-receptor preference. Preliminary data obtained with a small number of transmitted/founder viruses indicate inefficient macrophage infection, whereas isolates from later in disease are more frequently tropic for macrophages. Thus tropism may evolve over time, and more macrophage tropic viruses may be implicated in the pathogenesis of advanced HIV-1 infection. Compartmentalization of macrophage-tropic brain-derived envelope glycoproteins (Envs), and non-macrophage tropic non-neural tissue-derived Envs points to adaptation of HIV-1 quasi-species in distinct tissue microenvironments. Mutations within and adjacent to the Env-CD4 binding site have been identified that determine macrophage tropism at the entry level, but post-entry molecular determinants of macrophage replication capacity involving HIV-1 accessory proteins need further definition.
    Viruses 11/2011; 3(11):2255-79. DOI:10.3390/v3112255 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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