DNA damage and repair: from molecular mechanisms to health implications.
ABSTRACT DNA is subjected to several modifications, resulting from endogenous and exogenous sources. The cell has developed a network of complementary DNA-repair mechanisms, and in the human genome, >130 genes have been found to be involved. Knowledge about the basic mechanisms for DNA repair has revealed an unexpected complexity, with overlapping specificity within the same pathway, as well as extensive functional interactions between proteins involved in repair pathways. Unrepaired or improperly repaired DNA lesions have serious potential consequences for the cell, leading to genomic instability and deregulation of cellular functions. A number of disorders or syndromes, including several cancer predispositions and accelerated aging, are linked to an inherited defect in one of the DNA-repair pathways. Genomic instability, a characteristic of most human malignancies, can also arise from acquired defects in DNA repair, and the specific pathway affected is predictive of types of mutations, tumor drug sensitivity, and treatment outcome. Although DNA repair has received little attention as a determinant of drug sensitivity, emerging knowledge of mutations and polymorphisms in key human DNA-repair genes may provide a rational basis for improved strategies for therapeutic interventions on a number of tumors and degenerative disorders.
Article: Validation of the nucleotide excision repair comet assay on cryopreserved PBMCs to measure inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inter-individual susceptibility to mutagens/carcinogens can be assessed by either genotyping DNA repair genes in different pathways or phenotyping DNA repair capacity (DRC) at the molecular or cellular level. Due to the large number of known DNA repair genes, and the interactions between repair pathways, phenotyping is becoming the preferred approach to measure DRC, and reliable assays are therefore increasingly needed. The use of a cellular phenotype comet assay for the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway using benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) has been described in previous papers, but no thorough evaluation of its applicability in large genotype-phenotype studies has been presented. Our aim was to evaluate the possibility of using cryopreserved instead of fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to evaluate intra- and inter-assay variation, and inter-individual variation, for the aphidicolin (APC)-block NER comet assay. Moreover, we measured the variation for the designated internal standard (K562 erythroleukaemia cell line) and we evaluated the feasibility to use lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) as surrogate of PBMCs. Our results showed a low intra-assay [coefficient of variation (CV) 19.9%] and inter-assay (CV 32.3%) variation, with a good inter-individual variation (122 subjects, mean ± standard deviation 7.38±4.99; range 0.66-26.14; CV 67.63%). A significant correlation between results derived from cryopreserved and fresh PBMCs from the same individuals was found (10 subjects, r = 0.62, P = 0.05). Results from LCLs and cryopreserved PBMCs from the same subjects showed an inverse significant correlation (10 subjects, r = -0.712, P = 0.02). K562 cells as internal standard showed low intra-assay variation. In the present study the APC-block NER comet assay on cryopreserved PBMCs seemed to be a reliable method to measure DRC variation in epidemiological studies; LCLs were not a good surrogate in this assay.Mutagenesis 10/2012; · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cells in tissues and organs are continuously subjected to oxidative stress and free radicals on a daily basis. This free radical attack has exogenous or endogenous (intracellular) origin. The cells withstand and counteract this occurrence by the use of several and different defense mechanisms ranging from free radical scavengers like glutathione (GSH), vitamins C and E and antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase and various peroxidases to sophisticated and elaborate DNA repair mechanisms. The outcome of this dynamic equilibrium is usually the induction of oxidatively induced DNA damage and a variety of lesions of small to high importance and dangerous for the cell i.e. isolated base lesions or single strand breaks (SSBs) to complex lesions like double strand breaks (DSBs) and other non-DSB oxidatively generated clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs). The accumulation of DNA damage through misrepair or incomplete repair may lead to mutagenesis and consequently transformation particularly if combined with a deficient apoptotic pathway. In this review, we present the current status of knowledge and evidence on the mechanisms and involvement of intracellular oxidative stress and DNA damage in human malignancy evolution and possible use of these parameters as cancer biomarkers. At the same time, we discuss controversies related to potential artifacts inherent to specific methodologies used for the measurement of oxidatively induced DNA lesions in human cells or tissues.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 01/2011; 711(1-2):193-201. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As the mechanisms of skin aging become better understood, their complexity commands a different approach for antiaging benefits-i.e., integrating multiple complementary actives into a single formulation. In the present article, the authors describe a comprehensive formula designed to effectively address sixteen different mechanisms of skin aging.Cosmetics & Toiletries. 03/2010; 125(3):50-62.