Mucosal transmission of R5 and X4 tropic HIV-1 via vaginal and rectal routes in humanized Rag2-/- gammac -/- (RAG-hu) mice.
ABSTRACT Studies on HIV-1 mucosal transmission to evaluate early events in pathogenesis and the development of effective preventive/prophylactic methods have thus far been hampered by the lack of a suitable animal model susceptible to HIV-1 infection by either vaginal and/or rectal routes. In this regard, while primate-SIV/SHIV and cat-FIV models provided useful surrogate platforms to derive comparative data, these viruses are distinct and different from that of HIV-1. Therefore an optimal model that permits direct study of HIV-1 transmission via mucosal routes is highly desirable. The new generation of humanized NOD/SCID BLT, NOD/SCIDgammac(-/-), and Rag2(-/-)gammac(-/-) mouse models show great promise to achieve this goal. Here, we show that humanized Rag2(-/-)gammac(-/-) mice (RAG-hu) engrafted with CD34 hematopoietic progenitor cells harbor HIV-1-susceptible human cells in the rectal and vaginal mucosa and are susceptible to HIV-1 infection when exposed to cell-free HIV-1 either via vagina or rectum. Infection could be established without any prior hormonal conditioning or mucosal abrasion. Both R5 and X4 tropic viruses were capable of mucosal infection resulting in viremia and associated helper T cell depletion. There was systemic spread of the virus with infected cells detected in different organs including the intestinal mucosa. R5 virus was highly efficient in mucosal transmission by both routes whereas X4 virus was relatively less efficient in causing infection. HIV-1 infection of RAG-hu mice by vaginal and rectal routes as shown here represents the first in vivo model of HIV-1 transmission across intact mucosal barriers and as such may prove very useful for studying early events in HIV-1 pathogenesis in vivo, as well as the testing of microbicides, anti-HIV vaccines/therapeutics, and other novel strategies to prevent HIV-1 transmission.
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ABSTRACT: To directly study complex human hemato-lymphoid system physiology and respective system-associated diseases in vivo, human-to-mouse xenotransplantation models for human blood and blood-forming cells and organs have been developed over the past three decades.Wehere review the fundamental requirements and the remarkable progress made over the past few years in improving these systems, the current major achievements reached by use of these models, and the future challenges to more closely model and study human health and disease and to achieve predictive preclinical testing of both prevention measures and potential new therapies. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology Volume 31 is March 19, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.Annual Review of Immunology 01/2013; · 52.76 Impact Factor
Article: Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis by anti-retrovirals raltegravir and maraviroc protects against HIV-1 vaginal transmission in a humanized mouse model.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sexual HIV-1 transmission by vaginal route is the most predominant mode of viral transmission, resulting in millions of new infections every year. In the absence of an effective vaccine, there is an urgent need to develop other alternative methods of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Many novel drugs that are currently approved for clinical use also show great potential to prevent viral sexual transmission when administered systemically. A small animal model that permits rapid preclinical evaluation of potential candidates for their systemic PrEP efficacy will greatly enhance progress in this area of investigation. We have previously shown that RAG-hu humanized mouse model permits HIV-1 mucosal transmission via both vaginal and rectal routes and displays CD4 T cell loss typical to that seen in the human. Thus far systemic PrEP studies have been primarily limited to RT inhibitors exemplified by tenofovir and emtricitabine. In these proof-of-concept studies we evaluated two new classes of clinically approved drugs with different modes of action namely, an integrase inhibitor raltegravir and a CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc as potential systemically administered chemo-prophylactics. Our results showed that oral administration of either of these drugs fully protects against vaginal HIV-1 challenge in the RAG-hu mouse model. Based on these results both these drugs show great promise for further development as orally administered PrEPs.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(12):e15257. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: The utility of the new generation of humanized mice to study HIV-1 infection: transmission, prevention, pathogenesis, and treatment.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Substantial improvements have been made in recent years in the ability to engraft human cells and tissues into immunodeficient mice. The use of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) leads to multi-lineage human hematopoiesis accompanied by production of a variety of human immune cell types. Population of murine primary and secondary lymphoid organs with human cells occurs, and long-term engraftment has been achieved. Engrafted cells are capable of producing human innate and adaptive immune responses, making these models the most physiologically relevant humanized animal models to date. New models have been successfully infected by a variety of strains of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), accompanied by virus replication in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, including the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, the male and female reproductive tracts, and the brain. Multiple forms of virus-induced pathogenesis are present, and human T cell and antibody responses to HIV-1 are detected. These humanized mice are susceptible to a high rate of rectal and vaginal transmission of HIV-1 across an intact epithelium, indicating the potential to study vaccines and microbicides. Antiviral drugs, siRNAs, and hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy strategies have all been shown to be effective at reducing viral load and preventing or reversing helper T cell loss in humanized mice, indicating that they will serve as an important preclinical model to study new therapeutic modalities. HIV-1 has also been shown to evolve in response to selective pressures in humanized mice, thus showing that the model will be useful to study and/or predict viral evolution in response to drug or immune pressures. The purpose of this review is to summarize the findings reported to date on all new humanized mouse models (those transplanted with human HSCs) in regards to HIV-1 sexual transmission, pathogenesis, anti-HIV-1 immune responses, viral evolution, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, and gene therapeutic strategies.Retrovirology 08/2011; 8:65. · 6.47 Impact Factor