Detection of changed regional cerebral blood flow in mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's dementia by perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.
ABSTRACT The utility of perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (PW-MRI) for detecting changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) was evaluated. Thirteen cognitively normal (CN) elderly subjects, 35 mostly amnestic MCI subjects and 20 subjects with mild probable AD were enrolled. During i.v. injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine, a dynamic T2*-weighted single-shot EPI sequence was conducted using a 1.5-T scanner. Frontobasal (FROB), temporoparietal (TPAR), mesiotemporal (MTMP), anterior and posterior cingular (ACING, PCING), amygdala (AMYG), thalamus and cerebellar brain regions were studied. rCBF was computed from regional cerebral blood volume and arterial input function and normalised to white matter. Images were analysed by manually placed regions of interest using anatomical coregistration. Significant decreases of rCBF were detected in MCI vs. CN in MTMP (-23%), AMYG (-20%) and ACING (-15%) with no further decline in mild AD. In PCING hypoperfusion (-10%) was confined to AD. These hypoperfusional changes are a possible correlate of localised impairment of CNS function. In FROB no perfusion changes were observed between diagnostic groups, but hyperperfusion was observed in mild dementia stages, possibly reflecting functional compensatory mechanisms. These data suggest that PW-MRI detects specific changes in rCBF not only in AD, but also in amnestic MCI, a disorder suggested to largely represent a pre-dementia stage of AD. This method may thus be useful in both research and clinical applications to detect early functional brain changes in the pathogenesis of dementias.
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ABSTRACT: Vascular dementia is caused by various factors, including increased age, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and stroke. Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue. Adiponectin is widely known as a regulating factor related to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin plasma levels decrease with age. Decreased adiponectin increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin improves hypertension and atherosclerosis by acting as a vasodilator and antiatherogenic factor. Moreover, adiponectin is involved in cognitive dysfunction via modulation of insulin signal transduction in the brain. Case-control studies demonstrate the association between low adiponectin and increased risk of stroke, hypertension, and diabetes. This review summarizes the recent findings on the association between risk factors for vascular dementia and adiponectin. To emphasize this relationship, we will discuss the importance of research regarding the role of adiponectin in vascular dementia.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:261672. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vascular cognitive impairment defines alterations in cognition, ranging from subtle deficits to full-blown dementia, attributable to cerebrovascular causes. Often coexisting with Alzheimer's disease, mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. Central to the disease mechanism is the crucial role that cerebral blood vessels play in brain health, not only for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients, but also for the trophic signaling that inextricably links the well-being of neurons and glia to that of cerebrovascular cells. This review will examine how vascular damage disrupts these vital homeostatic interactions, focusing on the hemispheric white matter, a region at heightened risk for vascular damage, and on the interplay between vascular factors and Alzheimer's disease. Finally, preventative and therapeutic prospects will be examined, highlighting the importance of midlife vascular risk factor control in the prevention of late-life dementia.Neuron 11/2013; 80(4):844-866. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess regional cerebral perfusion distribution in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Regional changes of perfusion were evaluated in 34 patients with AD, 51 patients with MCI, and 23 healthy controls (HCs). Using region of interest analyses, regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume, and mean transit time were measured bilaterally in the hippocampus; the temporal, temporoparietal, frontal, and sensomotoric cortices; the anterior and posterior cingulate gyri; the lentiform nucleus; and the cerebellum. A significant reduction of CBF in patients with AD compared to HCs was shown in the frontal and temporoparietal cortices bilaterally, the lentiform nuclei bilaterally, the left posterior cingulate gyrus, and the cerebellum. Compared with patients with MCI, patients with AD presented a reduction of CBF in the frontal cortices bilaterally, the left temporoparietal cortex, and the left anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus. In both hippocampi and the posterior cingulate gyrus, a trend to a slight increase of CBF in patients with MCI was noticed with a decrease in patients with AD. Using dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging, pathologic alterations of regional brain perfusion can be demonstrated in patients with AD compared to patients with MCI or HCs.Academic radiology 06/2013; 20(6):705-11. · 2.09 Impact Factor