Evaluation of the Langat/dengue 4 chimeric virus as a live attenuated tick-borne encephalitis vaccine for safety and immunogenicity in healthy adult volunteers.
ABSTRACT With the steady rise in tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infections in Europe, development of a live attenuated vaccine that will generate long-lasting immunity would be of considerable benefit. A chimeric flavivirus, designated LGT/DEN4, was previously constructed to have a genome containing the prM and E protein genes of Langat virus (LGT), a naturally attenuated member of the TBEV complex, and the remaining genetic sequences derived from dengue 4 virus (DEN4). LGT/DEN4 was highly attenuated in rodents and non-human primates, and clinical trials in humans were initiated. Twenty-eight healthy seronegative adult volunteers were randomly assigned in a 4:1 ratio to receive 10(3) plaque-forming units (PFU) of LGT/DEN4 or placebo. Volunteers were closely monitored for clinical responses and for blood chemistry and hematological changes, and the level of viremia and the magnitude and duration of the neutralizing antibody response were determined. The LGT/DEN4 vaccine was safe and viremia was seen in only one vaccinee. Infection induced a neutralizing antibody response to wild-type LGT in 80% of volunteers with a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 1:63 present on day 42 post-immunization; however the antibody response against TBEV was both much less frequent (35%) and lower in magnitude (GMT=1:9). To assess the response to a booster dose, 21 of the original 28 volunteers were re-randomized to receive a second dose of either 10(3) PFU of vaccine or placebo given 6-18 months after the first dose. The immunogenicity against either LGT or TBEV was not significantly enhanced after the second dose of vaccine. Thus, chimerization of LGT with DEN4 yielded a vaccine virus that was highly attenuated yet infectious in humans. The level of replication was sufficiently restricted to induce only a weak cross-reactive antibody response to TBEV. To provide a sufficient level of immunity to widely prevalent, highly neurovirulent strains of TBEV in humans, vaccine candidates will likely need to be based on the TBEV structural protein genes.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Anna P Durbin, Nov 21, 2014
- SourceAvailable from: Kurt I Kamrud
Article: RNA-based viral vectors[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The advent of reverse genetic approaches to manipulate the genomes of both positive (+) and negative (−) sense RNA viruses allowed researchers to harness these genomes for basic research. Manipulation of positive sense RNA virus genomes occurred first largely because infectious RNA could be transcribed directly from cDNA versions of the RNA genomes. Manipulation of negative strand RNA virus genomes rapidly followed as more sophisticated approaches to provide RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complexes coupled with negative-strand RNA templates were developed. These advances have driven an explosion of RNA virus vaccine vector development. That is, development of approaches to exploit the basic replication and expression strategies of RNA viruses to produce vaccine antigens that have been engineered into their genomes. This study has led to significant preclinical testing of many RNA virus vectors against a wide range of pathogens as well as cancer targets. Multiple RNA virus vectors have advanced through preclinical testing to human clinical evaluation. This review will focus on RNA virus vectors designed to express heterologous genes that are packaged into viral particles and have progressed to clinical testing.Expert Review of Vaccines 11/2014; 14(2). DOI:10.1586/14760584.2015.979798 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BackgroundMost known flaviviruses, including West Nile virus (WNV), are maintained in natural transmission cycles between hematophagous arthropods and vertebrate hosts. Other flaviviruses such as Modoc virus (MODV) and Culex flavivirus (CxFV) have host ranges restricted to vertebrates and insects, respectively. The genetic elements that modulate the differential host ranges and transmission cycles of these viruses have not been identified.MethodsFusion polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to replace the capsid (C), premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes and the prM-E genes of a full-length MODV infectious cDNA clone with the corresponding regions of WNV and CxFV. Fusion products were directly transfected into baby hamster kidney-derived cells that stably express T7 RNA polymerase. At 4 days post-transfection, aliquots of each supernatant were inoculated onto vertebrate (BHK-21 and Vero) and mosquito (C6/36) cells which were then assayed for evidence of viral infection by reverse transcription-PCR, Western blot and plaque assay.ResultsChimeric virus was recovered in cells transfected with the fusion product containing the prM-E genes of WNV. The virus could infect vertebrate but not mosquito cells. The in vitro replication kinetics and yields of the chimeric virus were similar to MODV but the chimeric virus produced larger plaques. Chimeric virus was not recovered in cells transfected with any of the other fusion products.ConclusionsOur data indicate that genetic elements outside of the prM-E gene region of MODV condition its vertebrate-specific phenotype.Virology Journal 08/2014; 11(1):150. DOI:10.1186/1743-422X-11-150 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IXIARO (IC51), a recently approved inactivated Japanese Encephalitis vaccine, is immunogenic and safe in a 0/28 days primary immunization schedule. Neutralizing antibody titers decline with time and booster doses are likely needed to enhance persistence of immunity. To assess the effect of a booster dose on neutralizing JE antibody titers for up to 12 months after boostering. In this phase III trial, 198 subjects, who had received primary immunization in a preceding randomized trial, were boosted with IXIARO 15 months after the primary immunization. Neutralizing antibody titers were assessed by plaque-reduction neutralisation test, PRNT. Prior to the booster dose, 69.2% (137/198) of subjects had PRNT50 titers ≥ 1:10. One month after the booster, the rate of subjects with PRNT50 ≥ 1:10 (recognized as a protective titer) was 100%. This rate remained high at 98.5% at 6 and 12 months; GMTs were 22.5 before the booster and 900, 487 and 361 at 1, 6 and 12 months after the booster, respectively. A booster dose of IXIARO at 15 months after primary immunization was highly immunogenic with GMTs >5-fold higher than those seen immediately after primary immunization, and remained at high levels for at least 12 months after the booster.Vaccine 02/2011; 29(14):2607-12. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.01.058 · 3.49 Impact Factor