Interaction of dopamine transporter genotype with prenatal smoke exposure on ADHD symptoms

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany.
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 4.02). 03/2008; 152(2):263-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.07.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To demonstrate that children homozygous for the 10-repeat allele of the common dopamine transporter (DAT1) polymorphism who were exposed to maternal prenatal smoke exhibited significantly higher hyperactivity-impulsivity than children without these environmental or genetic risks.
We performed a prospective longitudinal study from birth into early adulthood monitoring the long-term outcome of early risk factors. Maternal prenatal smoking was determined during a standardized interview with the mother when the child was 3 months old. At age 15 years, 305 adolescents participated in genotyping for the DAT1 40 base pair variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism and assessment of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and oppositional defiant/conduct disorder symptoms with the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version.
There was no bivariate association between DAT1 genotype, prenatal smoke exposure and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, a significant interaction between DAT1 genotype and prenatal smoke exposure emerged (P = .012), indicating that males with prenatal smoke exposure who were homozygous for the DAT1 10r allele had higher hyperactivity-impulsivity than males from all other groups. In females, no significant main effects of DAT1 genotype or prenatal smoke exposure or interaction effects on any symptoms were evident (all P > .25).
This study provides further evidence for the multifactorial nature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the importance of studying both genetic and environmental factors and their interaction.

  • Kindheit und Entwicklung 01/2014; 23(1):23-33. DOI:10.1026/0942-5403/a000127 · 6.00 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Trait theories of leadership have documented the role of individual characteristics in affecting leadership. Twin studies have further revealed significant genetic effects on leadership role occupancy. In the era of genomics, the current research examines how a dopamine transporter gene, DAT1, is involved in genetic influences on leadership role occupancy. Study 1 found DAT1 10-repeat allele to negatively relate to proactive personality, which in turn was positively associated with leadership role occupancy. The negative indirect effect was significant, but the overall relationship between this gene and leadership was not. In addition to replicating Study 1's findings using a nationally representative sample, Study 2 revealed another countervailing mechanism: DAT1 was positively related to (moderate) rule breaking, which was positively associated with leadership role occupancy. Consistent findings across the two studies suggest that the pathways linking specific genes to leadership are complex and a middle-ground approach is needed in such multidisciplinary investigations.
    The Leadership Quarterly 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.12.005 · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ADHD and incontinence are common childhood disorders which co-occur at much higher rates than expected by chance. The aim of this review was to provide an overview both of the comorbidity of nocturnal enuresis (NE), daytime urinary incontinence (DUI) and faecal incontinence (FI) in children with ADHD; and, vice versa, of the co-occurrence of ADHD in children with NE, DUI and FI. Most clinical studies have focussed on the association of ADHD and NE. Population-based studies have shown that children with DUI have an even greater risk for ADHD than those with NE. While children with FI have the highest overall comorbidity rates of psychological disorders, these are heterogeneous with a wide range of internalising and externalising disorders-not necessarily of ADHD. Genetic studies indicate that ADHD and NE, DUI and FI do not share the same genetic basis. The comorbidity is conferred by non-genetic factors. Possible aetiological and pathogenetic links between ADHD and incontinence are provided by neurophysiological, imaging and pharmacological studies. The co-occurrence has clinical implications: children with ADHD and NE, DUI and FI are more difficult to treat, show lower compliance and have less favourable treatment outcomes for incontinence. Therefore, both groups of disorders have to be assessed and treated specifically.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 07/2014; 24(2). DOI:10.1007/s00787-014-0577-0 · 3.55 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 22, 2014