Article

Interaction of dopamine transporter genotype with prenatal smoke exposure on ADHD symptoms

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany.
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 4.02). 03/2008; 152(2):263-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.07.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To demonstrate that children homozygous for the 10-repeat allele of the common dopamine transporter (DAT1) polymorphism who were exposed to maternal prenatal smoke exhibited significantly higher hyperactivity-impulsivity than children without these environmental or genetic risks.
We performed a prospective longitudinal study from birth into early adulthood monitoring the long-term outcome of early risk factors. Maternal prenatal smoking was determined during a standardized interview with the mother when the child was 3 months old. At age 15 years, 305 adolescents participated in genotyping for the DAT1 40 base pair variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism and assessment of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and oppositional defiant/conduct disorder symptoms with the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version.
There was no bivariate association between DAT1 genotype, prenatal smoke exposure and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, a significant interaction between DAT1 genotype and prenatal smoke exposure emerged (P = .012), indicating that males with prenatal smoke exposure who were homozygous for the DAT1 10r allele had higher hyperactivity-impulsivity than males from all other groups. In females, no significant main effects of DAT1 genotype or prenatal smoke exposure or interaction effects on any symptoms were evident (all P > .25).
This study provides further evidence for the multifactorial nature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the importance of studying both genetic and environmental factors and their interaction.

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