Comparison of different definitions of pediatric metabolic syndrome: Relation to abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, adiponectin, and inflammatory biomarkers
ABSTRACT To examine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using different pediatric definitions reported in the literature and its relationship to abdominal adipose tissue (AT), in vivo insulin resistance, and inflammatory biomarkers in children and adolescents, as well as the utility of fasting insulin and adiponectin as predictors of the metabolic syndrome.
Cross-sectional measurements were obtained from 122 African Americans and 129 Caucasians age 8 to 19 years. Insulin sensitivity (IS) was measured by a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Blood pressure, fasting lipids, adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6, adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule [VCAM]-1, and E-selectin), and abdominal AT were measured.
Regardless of the metabolic syndrome criteria used, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was higher in overweight (24% approximately 51%) compared with non-overweight youths (1% approximately 3%) in both African Americans and Caucasians (P <.01). Youths with the metabolic syndrome had higher visceral AT and fasting insulin and lower IS and adiponetin independent of race (P < .01). In Caucasians, youths with the metabolic syndrome had higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, ICAM-1, and E-selectin). The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) for insulin was 0.86 approximately 0.89 in African Americans and 0.86 approximately 0.89 in Caucasians, depending on the metabolic syndrome criteria used. For adiponetin, the AUC was 0.73 approximately 0.78 in African Americans and 0.81 approximately 0.86 in Caucasians.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies depending on the definition used in the literature. Thus, there is a need for a unified definition of this syndrome in children and adolescents to streamline the research in this area. Independent of race, visceral obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypoadiponectinemia are the common characteristics of youths with the metabolic syndrome. In Caucasians but not in African Americans, the metabolic syndrome is associated with increased inflammatory markers; however, the translation of such findings remains to be determined based on long-term longitudinal outcome studies in different racial groups.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents, as well as the adopted classification criteria. DATA SOURCE: Systematic review performed by electronic search on PubMed and Virtual Library in Health database. The inclusion criteria were: metabolic syndrome prevalence data in children and adolescents with overweight and obes-ity, and publications in Portuguese, English, Spanish and French. The exclusion criteria were review articles and short communications, investigations enrolling participants with genetic, endocrine and immunologic diseases, primary hy-pertension, and acanthosis nigricans. DATA SYNTHESIS: The review afforded 1.226 abstracts, being 65 selected to be read, 46 of them matched the afore-mentioned selection criteria and could be retrieved. They were published between 2003 and 2009 and represented five geographic regions: North America (33%), South America (20%), Central America (4%), Asia (30%) and Europe (13%). The metabolic syndrome reported prevalence ranged from 2.1 to 58.3%. The adopted criteria diverged among the studies, 26 of them used the same components (neutral fat, HDL, glucose, waist circumference and blood pressure), with a median prevalence of 31.2%, without agreement on the chosen cut-off points. In the remaining studies, metabolic syndrome definition included glucose oral tolerance, body mass index, serum cholesterol, and HOMA-IR index. CONCLUSIONS: The metabolic syndrome prevalence among children and adolescents with obesity or overweight reported in the literature showed a wide variability. There was heterogeneity, regarding born the variables chosen to define the presence of metabolic syndrome and their respective cut-off points.Revista Paulista de Pediatria 06/2011; 29(2):277-288. DOI:10.1590/S0103-05822011000200021
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Obesity in adolescence has been associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease in adulthood. This study evaluated subclinical atherosclerosis in obese youth and the underlying risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Ninety obese adolescents (37 normal glucose tolerant, 27 prediabetes, and 26 type 2 diabetes) underwent evaluation of coronary artery calcifications (CACs) by electron beam computed tomography, aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), lipids, leptin, inflammatory markers, and body composition (DEXA). A total of 68 underwent evaluation of insulin sensitivity (IS) (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) and abdominal adiposity (computed tomography). RESULTS A total of 50% had CACs (CAC+: Agatston CAC score >= 1). CAC+ youth had higher BMI, fat mass, and abdominal fat, with no difference in sex, race, IS per fat-free mass (ISFFM), glucose tolerance, PWV, or IMT compared with the CAC- group. PWV was inversely related to IS. In multiple regression analyses with age, race, sex, HbA(1c), BMI (or waist circumference), ISFFM, diastolic blood pressure, non-HDL cholesterol, and leptin as independent variables, BMI (or waist) (R-2 = 0.41; P = 0.001) was the significant determinant of CAC; leptin (R-2 = 0.37; P = 0.034) for PWV; and HbA(1c), race, and age (R-2 = 0.34; P = 0.02) for IMT. CONCLUSIONS Early in the course of obesity, there is evidence of CAC independent of glycemia. The different biomarkers of subclinical atherosclerosis appear to be differentially modulated, adiposity being the major determinant of CAC, hyperglycemia, age, and race for IMT, and leptin and IS for arterial stiffness. These findings highlight the increased cardiovascular disease risk in obese youth and the need for early interventions to reverse obesity and atherosclerosis.Diabetes Care 09/2014; 37(9):2632-9. DOI:10.2337/dc14-0193 · 8.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Due to the lack of consensus on its definition, the metabolic syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents is not formally recognized. However, several researchers have changed the adult criteria for pediatric standards in order to assess the prevalence. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of MS and its components according to two of the currently used definitions in overweight and obese adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 232 adolescents with excess weight from a public school of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and biochemical variables were assessed. MS was defined using two different diagnostic criteria: the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Results: MS was diagnosed in 40.4 and 24.6% of obese adolescents and 9.4 and 1.9% of overweight adolescents according to the NCEP-ATPIII and IDF criteria, respectively. The degree of agreement, assessed by the κ index, from the definitions adopted in this study was 0.48. Conclusion: The results show a significant difference between the two diagnostic criteria. A higher frequency was found when the NCEP-ATPIII was used, which is of concern given the association of MS with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 05/2014; 64(1):71-79. DOI:10.1159/000362568 · 2.75 Impact Factor