Allergy immunotherapy among Medicaid-enrolled children with allergic rhinitis: Patterns of care, resource use, and costs
ABSTRACT Although research demonstrates that allergy immunotherapy (IT) improves allergic rhinitis (AR) outcomes, little is known about IT patterns of care and associated resource use and costs among US children with diagnoses of AR.
We sought to examine characteristics associated with receiving IT, patterns of IT care, and health care use and costs incurred in the 6 months before versus after IT.
We performed retrospective Florida Medicaid claims data (1997-2004) analysis of children (<18 years of age) given new diagnoses of AR.
Of 102,390 patients with new diagnoses of AR, 3048 (3.0%) received IT. Male patients, Hispanic patients, and those with concomitant asthma were significantly more likely to receive IT. Approximately 53% completed less than 1 year and 84% completed less than 3 years of IT. Patients who received IT used significantly less pharmacy (12.1 vs 8.9 claims, P < .0001), outpatient (30.7 vs 22.9 visits, P < .0001), and inpatient (1.2 vs 0.4 admissions, P = .02) resources in the 6 months after versus before IT. Pharmacy ($330 vs $60, P < .0001), outpatient ($735 vs $270, P < .0001), and inpatient ($2441 vs $1, P < .0001) costs (including costs for IT care) were significantly reduced after IT.
Despite suboptimal treatment persistence (only 16% of patients completed 3 years of IT), resource use and costs after treatment were significantly reduced from pre-IT levels.
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ABSTRACT: Tesis Univ. Granada. Departamento de Pediatría. Leída el 5 de octubre de 2009
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ABSTRACT: The protospec unifies the concepts of requirements specification and prototype into a single software engineering process. An example of the use of the protospec concept for requirements specification within expert systems development domain is presented. The requirements specification resulting from this example is evaluated from both a user and a software engineering point of view. The result is compared to results for three other specification approachesSystem Sciences, 1989. Vol.II: Software Track, Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Hawaii International Conference on; 02/1989
Conference Paper: Correctness verification of concurrent systems[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Formal tools and computer support for correctness verification are proposed. An algebraic process description of the correctness facilitates formal tools aiding correctness proving. Two methods of correctness verification are presented: static verification, corresponding to the verification notion in system programming which is informally described by the software standard; and dynamic correction, which is a generalization of the exception-handling idea. Algorithms for these methods are specifiedSystem Sciences, 1989. Vol.II: Software Track, Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Hawaii International Conference on; 02/1989
Cheryl S Hankin