The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of intra-articular (i.a.) corticosteroid injections (IACIs) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) on mandibular development in antigen-induced TMJ arthritis. Ten-week-old female New Zealand white rabbits (n = 42) were randomly divided into four groups: group A, control (no injections); group B, placebo (repeated i.a. TMJ saline injections); group C, untreated arthritis (repeated induction of TMJ arthritis); and group D, steroid (repeated induction of TMJ arthritis + IACI). All animals had two tantalum implants inserted in the right side of the mandible serving as stable landmarks for later growth analysis. One implant was inserted close to the symphysis and one in the molar region. Computerized tomographic (CT) full-head scans were carried out at 14 (T1) and 26 (T2) weeks of age. (Dropout of animals at T2; group C, n = 7, and group D, n = 3.) Absolute and relative intra- and inter-group growth variations were evaluated during the growth period by comparison of CT scans. One-way analysis of variance was used for T1 statistical analysis, and absolute intra-group and relative inter-group growth differences between T1 and T2 were evaluated by Student's t-tests. At T2, the animals in the group A had greater sagittal and vertical mandibular growth compared with the other three groups. TMJ arthritis caused diminished mandibular growth. However, relative mandibular growth was significantly less in group D. The findings of this study do not indicate a positive long-term effect in the use of IACI in the TMJ as an early treatment intervention against TMJ inflammation in growing individuals.
"Intraarticular steroids for TMJ involvement were employed in 65% of the responding centers. It is possible that some centers are hesitant to use intraarticular steroids due to animal model data in rabbits showing arrest of the mandibular growth plate after intraarticular corticosteroid injection . This risk was not confirmed in another animal study or in a study on humans [2,14]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement occurs in up to 80% of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Currently they are no standardized procedures regarding diagnosis and treatment of this common complication of JIA. The aim of the study was to assess the current clinical practices in many countries regarding diagnosis and treatment of TMJ involvement in JIA. Pediatric rheumatologists were asked to fill out a survey with 8 items regarding diagnosis and treatment of TMJ involvement. The survey was distributed over the worldwide pediatric rheumatology electronic list-serve. Data was collected in an Excel spread sheet and analyzed using Excel software.
Eighty-seven centers responded to the survey between December 2009 and April 2010. All responding centers were actively screening for TMJ involvement. All centers were screening by physical exam, 85 (97%) by history, and 2 (3%) by imaging. Seventy-seven (88%) centers were screening at the first visit and 76 (87%) at each follow-up visit. If imaging was requested, 77% of the centers reported that they asked for MRI, 10% for ultrasound, 9% for CT and 33% for X-ray. The first line treatment of TMJ arthritis was a non-biologic DMARD in 36%, an NSAID in 33%, an intraarticular corticosteroid injection in 26%, and an anti-TNF agent in 5%. Overall, 57 (65%) of the centers were using intraarticular corticosteroid injections as treatment.
TMJ arthritis is common among children with JIA. This survey shows that a wide array of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is being employed for TMJ disease in 87 international centers. Due to this lack of agreement in how to diagnose and treat this JIA complication, we believe that an expert opinion/consensus statement regarding TMJ arthritis in JIA will likely benefit patients worldwide.
"Steroid injections have been reported to be a valuable treatment in children with TMJ involvement [36-38], but also here, further studies are needed to demonstrate its effect on craniofacial growth. A study on rabbits have shown a negative effect on mandibular growth after steroid injection in the TMJ . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between radiographic JIA disease course in the TMJs and mandibular growth rotation, compared with growth in healthy individuals.
From a larger series of JIA patients followed from childhood to adulthood, 26 were included; 11 without and 15 with bilateral radiographic TMJ involvement. Joint morphology and function were assessed at baseline, 2-, 4-, 6- and 27 years follow-up. Mandibular growth rotation (anterior, posterior or none) was assessed from cephalometric evaluations at childhood and adulthood, with observations from 16 healthy individuals as controls. TMJ disease course and mandibular growth rotation were assessed independently and their relationship analysed. Non-parametric statistical methods were applied to test differences between groups.
In the normal TMJ group of JIA patients the joint morphology was similar at the follow-ups and all patients had good function both in childhood and in adulthood. The mandibular growth rotation was similar to that of healthy controls, i.e. predominantly in anterior direction. In the abnormal TMJ group different JIA TMJ disease courses were observed and associated with changes in the mandibular growth rotation (p = 0.007).Progressing JIA TMJ disease course was related to posterior mandibular growth rotation and improving disease course to anterior mandibular growth rotation.
A relationship was found between JIA disease course in the TMJs and mandibular growth rotation, suggesting that a favourable growth could be regained in patients with improvement in TMJ morphology and/or TMJ function. To confirm this, further research on larger patient series is needed.
"Symptomatic and functional improvements of IA corticosteroid injections for the treatment of TMJ arthritis in children have been described [9,11]. However, previously we have published data supporting that, despite of significant inflammatory reduction, these injections have a highly unfavourable effect on the mandibular growth in experimental studies [12,13]. Therefore, searches for alternative local anti-inflammatory treatments are warranted in the future. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis in children causes alterations in the craniomandibular growth. Resultant abnormalities include; condylar erosions, a posterior mandibular rotation pattern, micrognathia, malocclusion with an anterior open bite, altered joint and muscular function occasionally associated with pain. These alterations may be prevented by early aggressive anti-inflammatory intervention. Previously, we have shown that intra-articular (IA) corticosteroid reduces TMJ inflammation but causes additional mandibular growth inhibition in young rabbits. Local blockage of TNF-alpha may be an alternative treatment approach against TMJ involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of IA etanercept compared to subcutaneous etanercept in antigen-induced TMJ-arthritis in young rabbits in terms of mandibular growth. This article (Part II) presents the data and discussion on the effects on facial growth. In Part I the anti-inflammatory effects of systemic and IA etanercept administration are discussed.
Arthritis was induced and maintained in the TMJs of 10-week old pre-sensitized rabbits (n = 42) by four repeated IA TMJ injections with ovalbumin, over a 12-week period. One group was treated weekly with systemic etanercept (0.8 mg/kg) (n = 14), another group (n = 14) received IA etanercept (0.1 mg/kg) bilaterally one week after induction of arthritis and one group (n = 14) served as an untreated arthritis group receiving IA TMJ saline injections. Head computerized tomographic scans were done before arthritis was induced and at the end of the study. Three small tantalum implants were inserted into the mandible, serving as stable landmarks for the super-impositions. Nineteen variables were evaluated in a mandibular growth analysis for inter-group differences. All data was evaluated blindedly. ANOVA and T-tests were applied for statistical evaluation using p < 0.05 as significance level.
Significant larger mandibular growth disturbances were observed in the group receiving IA saline injections compared with the systemic etanercept group. The most pronounced unfavourable posterior mandibular rotation pattern was observed in the group receiving IA saline injections.
Intervention with systemic etanercept monotherapy equivalent to the recommended human dose allows a mandibular growth towards an original morphology in experimental TMJ arthritis. Systemic administrations of etanercept are superior to IA TMJ administration of etanercept in maintaining mandibular vertical growth.
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