Reduced mandibular growth in experimental arthritis in the temporomandibular joint treated with intra-articular corticosteroid.
ABSTRACT The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of intra-articular (i.a.) corticosteroid injections (IACIs) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) on mandibular development in antigen-induced TMJ arthritis. Ten-week-old female New Zealand white rabbits (n = 42) were randomly divided into four groups: group A, control (no injections); group B, placebo (repeated i.a. TMJ saline injections); group C, untreated arthritis (repeated induction of TMJ arthritis); and group D, steroid (repeated induction of TMJ arthritis + IACI). All animals had two tantalum implants inserted in the right side of the mandible serving as stable landmarks for later growth analysis. One implant was inserted close to the symphysis and one in the molar region. Computerized tomographic (CT) full-head scans were carried out at 14 (T1) and 26 (T2) weeks of age. (Dropout of animals at T2; group C, n = 7, and group D, n = 3.) Absolute and relative intra- and inter-group growth variations were evaluated during the growth period by comparison of CT scans. One-way analysis of variance was used for T1 statistical analysis, and absolute intra-group and relative inter-group growth differences between T1 and T2 were evaluated by Student's t-tests. At T2, the animals in the group A had greater sagittal and vertical mandibular growth compared with the other three groups. TMJ arthritis caused diminished mandibular growth. However, relative mandibular growth was significantly less in group D. The findings of this study do not indicate a positive long-term effect in the use of IACI in the TMJ as an early treatment intervention against TMJ inflammation in growing individuals.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis often affects the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), resulting in facial deformities, and intra-articular injections of anti-inflammatory steroids used in treatment may inhibit bone growth in the developing condyle. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of simvastatin (SIM), a bone anabolic drug, compared with the common steroid triamcinolone hexacetonide (TH) in experimental TMJ arthritis of growing rats. METHODS: Joint inflammation was induced by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the TMJs of 32 growing (4-week-old) Sprague-Dawley rats while simultaneously receiving 1) ethanol drug carrier, 2) 0.1 mg of SIM, 3) 0.5 mg of SIM, or 4) 0.15 mg of TH. Six rats had no treatment to the TMJ. Animals were euthanized 28 days later, and TMJs were decalcified and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. RESULTS: Histopathologic TMJ results showed that CFA injection along with drug carrier induced increased thickness of the articular layer on the head of the condyle and inflammation of the retrodiscal area (CFA and ethanol). Although both TH and SIM reduced the articular layer thickness, 0.5 mg of SIM was more effective at reducing subsynovial inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Intra-articular simvastatin showed anti-inflammatory properties in this TMJ model, prompting its further study in the growing TMJ, where bone anabolic properties would be important.Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 02/2013; · 1.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement occurs in up to 80% of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Currently they are no standardized procedures regarding diagnosis and treatment of this common complication of JIA. The aim of the study was to assess the current clinical practices in many countries regarding diagnosis and treatment of TMJ involvement in JIA. Pediatric rheumatologists were asked to fill out a survey with 8 items regarding diagnosis and treatment of TMJ involvement. The survey was distributed over the worldwide pediatric rheumatology electronic list-serve. Data was collected in an Excel spread sheet and analyzed using Excel software. Eighty-seven centers responded to the survey between December 2009 and April 2010. All responding centers were actively screening for TMJ involvement. All centers were screening by physical exam, 85 (97%) by history, and 2 (3%) by imaging. Seventy-seven (88%) centers were screening at the first visit and 76 (87%) at each follow-up visit. If imaging was requested, 77% of the centers reported that they asked for MRI, 10% for ultrasound, 9% for CT and 33% for X-ray. The first line treatment of TMJ arthritis was a non-biologic DMARD in 36%, an NSAID in 33%, an intraarticular corticosteroid injection in 26%, and an anti-TNF agent in 5%. Overall, 57 (65%) of the centers were using intraarticular corticosteroid injections as treatment. TMJ arthritis is common among children with JIA. This survey shows that a wide array of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is being employed for TMJ disease in 87 international centers. Due to this lack of agreement in how to diagnose and treat this JIA complication, we believe that an expert opinion/consensus statement regarding TMJ arthritis in JIA will likely benefit patients worldwide.Pediatric Rheumatology 01/2014; 12(1):6. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the current level of evidence for the use of intra-articular corticosteroid injections (IACI) against temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) with a particular focus on clinical and radiological improvements and safety profile. METHODS: A comprehensive electronic search strategy was performed in all major medical databases in February 2012. Studies were selected independently by two reviewers in accordance with a pre-specified protocol and a risk of bias assessment for all included studies. RESULTS: Ninety-four unique citations were identified of which seven remained after the inclusion criteria were applied and all of these were assessed to have a high risk of bias. The current limited level of evidence suggests potential beneficial properties of IACI in patients with TMJ arthritis-related symptoms and/or MRI-verified signs of TMJ inflammation. Currently, no scientific evidence substantiates the effect of IACI in terms of (I) improving maximal mouth opening capacity significantly, (II) reducing radiological disease progression, (III) normalising/improving mandibular growth, and (IV) increasing efficacy upon repeated injections. CONCLUSION: The current level of evidence allows only very limited conclusions on the effect of IACI therapy in patients with TMJ arthritis. Knowledge on the long-term impact of IACI on mandibular growth is not available. Future studies designed in accordance with evidence-based standards are needed to allow a more general conclusion on efficacy and safety of this treatment modality in patients with TMJ arthritis.Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism 01/2013; · 4.72 Impact Factor