Hepatitis B and C in ethnic minority populations in England
ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to investigate the differing epidemiology of hepatitis C-related end-stage liver disease in ethnic minorities in England. We used Hospital Episode Statistics from 1997/98 to 2004/05 to directly age-standardize numbers of episodes and deaths from hepatitis C-related end-stage liver disease in ethnic groups using the white English population as standard and the age-structured population by ethnic group from the 2001 Census. We estimated the odds of having a diagnosis of end-stage liver disease amongst hepatitis C-infected individuals in each ethnic group compared with whites using logistic regression. The main outcome measures were age-standardized morbidity and mortality ratios and morbidity and mortality odds ratios. Standardized ratios (95% confidence interval) for hepatitis C-related end-stage liver disease ranged from 73 (38-140) in Chinese people to 1063 (952-1186) for those from an 'Other' ethnic group. Amongst individuals with a diagnosis of hepatitis C infection, the odds ratios (95% CI) of severe liver disease were 1.42 (1.13-1.79), 1.57 (1.36-1.81), 2.44 (1.85-3.22), 1.73 (1.36-2.19) and 1.83 (1.08-3.10) comparing individuals of Black African, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Indian and Chinese origin with whites, respectively. Ethnic minority populations in England are more likely than whites to experience an admission or to die from severe liver disease as a result of hepatitis C infection. Ethnic minority populations may have a higher prevalence of hepatitis C or they may experience a poorer prognosis because of differential access to health services, longer duration of infection or the prevalence of co-morbidities.
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in immigrant communities is unknown. Immigrants from south Asia are common in England and elsewhere, and the burden of viral hepatitis in these communities is unknown. We aimed to determine the prevalence of viral hepatitis in immigrants from south Asia living in England, and we therefore undertook a community-based testing project in such people at five sites in England. A total of 4998 people attending community centres were screened for viral hepatitis using oral fluid testing. The overall prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people of south Asian origin was 1.6% but varied by country of birth being 0.4%, 0.2%, 0.6% and 2.7% in people of this ethnic group born in the UK, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, respectively. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was 1.2%-0.2%, 0.1%, 1.5% and 1.8% in people of this ethnic group born in the UK, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, respectively. Analysis of risk factors for HCV infection shows that people from the Pakistani Punjab and those who have immigrated recently are at increased risk of infection. Our study suggests that migrants from Pakistan are at highest risk of viral hepatitis, with those from India at low risk. As prevalence varies both by country and region of origin and over time, the prevalence in migrant communities living in western countries cannot be easily predicted from studies in the country of origin.Journal of Viral Hepatitis 12/2009; 17(5):327-35. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2893.2009.01240.x · 3.31 Impact Factor
- Gut 08/2010; 59(8):1009-11. DOI:10.1136/gut.2009.206763 · 13.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper is a report of a study conducted to compare knowledge of hepatitis C virus infection amongst three groups of registered nurses working in primary care, to identify their current sources of information and access to educational resources. Hepatitis C virus infection is a public health problem; no vaccine exists to prevent the disease. Previous studies identified limitations in nurses' knowledge of hepatitis C virus infection and the impact on care. Limited research has been conducted in primary care. A cross-sectional postal census survey of 981 nurses working in one Irish health board region was conducted March-June 2006. Questionnaires measured knowledge of hepatitis C virus infection. Data were collected on demographics, current working practices, information resources and previous education. The response rate was 57·1% (n = 560). A minority (27·3% 145/531) of respondents agreed they were well informed about the virus. Almost 40% reported having contact with clients with the virus; however, information and service provision differed. Factors influencing higher knowledge included: contact with clients with hepatitis C virus infection (P < 0·0001), working in the addiction services (P < 0·0001), educated to degree level and above (P < 0·010) and previously attending education programmes (P < 0·0001). Only 21·5% (119/553) of respondents had attended any form of education on hepatitis C virus infection. Gaps in nurses' knowledge exist and can limit information and advice. Educational and information resources need to be developed for registered nurses working in primary care; care for clients with hepatitis C virus infection is not the sole remit of the addiction services.Journal of Advanced Nursing 11/2010; 67(2):327-39. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05489.x · 1.69 Impact Factor