[Alternative materials and solutions in total knee arthroplasty for patients with metal allergy].
ABSTRACT The annual number of total knee replacement implantations is rising continuously. A progressive cutaneous hypersensitivity rate against metallic materials in the population has been registered which can lead to an increase of allergy-induced reactions associated with implant loosening in the future although the correlation with an allergic cutaneous sensitisation has not been proven in all cases. On apparent allergy against metallic implant components different alternative solutions to standard endoprostheses should be taken into account for primary implantation or revision of total knee replacement, for example the application of implant components without metallic elements (e.g. ceramics), the use of non-allergic metallic implants, such as titanium or ZrNb alloys, or potential allergy-inducing metallic materials after masking the implant surface using a suitable coating. In the case of primary or revision surgery most patients with metal allergy are treated with a Ti(Nb)N-coated knee implant made of cobalt-chrome or titanium alloys in our hospital. Within an international multi-centre study we are currently implanting a newly developed knee endoprosthesis system with a ceramic femoral component as an alternative.
Article: Ceramic femoral components in total knee arthroplasty - two year follow-up results of an international prospective multi-centre study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Total knee arthroplasty can be considered as a reliable surgical procedure with a good long-term clinical result. However, implant failure due to particle induced aseptic loosening as well as the aspect of hypersensitivity to metal ions still remains an emerging issue. The purpose of this prospective international multi-centre study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes and the reliability of the unconstrained Multigen Plus Total Knee System with a new BIOLOX® delta ceramic femoral component. Cemented total knee arthroplasty was performed on 108 patients (110 knees) at seven hospitals in three countries. Clinical and radiological evaluations were performed preoperatively, and after 3, 12 and 24 months postoperatively using the HSS-, WOMAC-, SF-36-score and standardised X-rays. The mean preoperative HSS-Score amounted to 55.5 ± 11.5 points and improved significantly in all postoperative evaluations (85.7 ± 11.7 points at 24 months). Furthermore, improvements in WOMAC- and SF-36-score were evaluated as significant at all points of evaluation. Radiolucent lines around the femoral ceramic component at 24 months were found in four cases. Progression of radiolucent lines was not seen and no implant loosening was observed. During the 24 month follow-up eight patients underwent subsequent surgery due to reasons unrelated to the implant material. The observed clinical and radiological results are encouraging for a long-term survival of the ceramic femoral component. Therefore, ceramic implants could be a promising solution not only for patients with allergies against metallic implant materials, but also for the osteoarthritic knee joint. Long-term follow-up is necessary to draw conclusions regarding the superiority of the ceramic knee implants concerning in vivo wear and long-term survivorship.The Open Orthopaedics Journal 01/2012; 6:172-8.
Article: Comparative Study of Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of Unconstrained Bicondylar Total Knee Endoprostheses with Anti-allergic Coating.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypersensitivity reactions to implant materials have become more important in total knee replacement (TKR). The purpose of this retrospective comparative study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of unconstrained bicondylar total knee prostheses with and without anti-allergic titanium(niobium)nitrite (Ti(Nb)N) coating. Twenty-four patients (25 TKRs) underwent a preoperative clinical evaluation and then a postoperative evaluation after 26.2 months in the allergy group treated with coated implants (n=13 implants) and after 24.5 months in the control group treated with uncoated implants but identical geometry (n=12) using HSS, WOMAC and SF-36 scores. Radiological evaluations were performed using standard anterior-posterior (a.p.) and lateral X-rays. During follow-up two patients of the allergy group had to undergo revision surgery due to non-implant-related reasons. A comparative analysis of both study groups showed a significant difference in the HSS scores at both evaluation time points (MW test p≤0.050); these findings are remarkable since the control group had a significantly lower score preoperatively (54.0 vs 65.0 points) and a significantly higher score (82.5 vs 75.0 points) postoperatively. The preoperative and postoperative WOMAC and SF-36 scores were comparable in both groups (MW test p≥0.052), although the postoperative increase in the score for the allergy group was lower. The radiological results were comparable in both groups and were unlikely to influence the results. This clinical study demonstrates the restricted outcome in postoperative function and quality of life in the allergy group compared to the control group.The Open Orthopaedics Journal 01/2011; 5:354-60.