An alternative hemostatic dressing: Comparison of CELOX, HemCon, and QuikClot

Department of Emergency Medicine, Naval Medical Center, Portsmouth, VA, USA.
Academic Emergency Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.2). 02/2008; 15(1):74-81. DOI: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2007.00009.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Uncontrolled hemorrhage remains a leading cause of traumatic death. Several topical adjunct agents have been shown to be effective in controlling hemorrhage, and two, chitosan wafer dressing (HemCon [HC]) and zeolite powder dressing (QuikClot [QC]), are being utilized regularly on the battlefield. However, recent literature reviews have concluded that no ideal topical agent exists. The authors compared a new chitosan granule dressing (CELOX [CX]) to HC, QC and standard dressing in a lethal hemorrhagic groin injury.
A complex groin injury with transection of the femoral vessels and 3 minutes of uncontrolled hemorrhage was created in 48 swine. The animals were then randomized to four treatment groups (12 animals each). Group 1 included standard gauze dressing (SD); Group 2, CX; Group 3, HC; and Group 4, QC. Each agent was applied with 5 minutes of manual pressure followed by a standard field compression dressing. Hetastarch (500 mL) was infused over 30 minutes. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded over 180 minutes. Primary endpoints included rebleed and death.
CX reduced rebleeding to 0% (p < 0.001), HC to 33% (95% CI = 19.7% to 46.3%, p = 0.038), and QC to 8% (95% CI = 3.3% to 15.7%, p = 0.001), compared to 83% (95% CI = 72.4% to 93.6%) for SD. CX improved survival to 100% compared to SD at 50% (95% CI = 35.9% to 64.2%, p = 0.018). Survival for HC (67%) (95% CI = 53.7% to 80.3%) and QC (92%; 95% CI = 84.3% to 99.7%) did not differ from SD.
In this porcine model of uncontrolled hemorrhage, CX improved hemorrhage control and survival. CELOX is a viable alternative for the treatment of severe hemorrhage.

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Available from: Buddy Kozen, Jan 21, 2014
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    • "Chitosan was reported to improve homeostasis (Kozen et al. 2008) and promote granulation by enhancing the function of inflammatory cells such as leukocytes, fibroblasts and macrophages (Ueno et al. 2001). Furthermore, chitosan has antimicrobial effects against bacteria, fungi and viruses (Rabea et al. 2003). "
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