Hand force of men and women over 65 years of age as measured by maximum pinch and grip force

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Texas Medical Branch-SAHS, Galveston, TX 77555-1144, USA.
Journal of aging and physical activity (Impact Factor: 1.97). 02/2008; 16(1):24-41.
Source: PubMed


This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the impact of age and gender on 4 measures of grip and pinch force of well elderly community dwellers and to provide normative values. The hypotheses were that age and gender affect pinch and grip force and that these 2 factors might interact. Hand strength of 224 seniors 65-92 years old was tested. Grip and pinch force decreased in successively older age groups past 65 years. Men's grip force exceeded that of women in all age groups. Men's hand-force decline was steeper than that of women over successive age groups, suggesting that gender differences in force decreased with age. Trends were the same for all 4 types of grip- and pinch-force measurement but were most clearly visible in grip and key-pinch force. Norms were provided for seniors age 65-85+ years in 5-yr increments.

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    • "Our study also demonstrated that there is a negative correlational relationship between both grip strength and pinch with age. Jansen et al. (2008) established an inverse correlational relationship between age with grip strength and pinch. Interestingly, all of the large negative relationships in the healthy population were statistically significant , which was not the case with the CMC OA population. "
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeThe primary objective of this study was to compare grip and pinch strength between women with carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) between affected and unaffected sides of the body in patients or dominant and nondominant sides in healthy subjects. The secondary aim was to establish the cutoff values scores for the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for grip strength, tip, and tripod pinch.DesignA prospective case controlled study.Methods One hundred ten women participated in the study. The CMC OA group consisted of 57 patients and the control group consisted of 53 healthy subjects. Grip strength, tip and tripod pinch were assessed bilaterally. The two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to determine the differences between sides of the body and between the groups.FindingsThe post hoc analysis indicated that the patients in the CMC OA group indicated statistically significant lower score on the grip and pinch strength (all, p < .001). The MCID from baseline score in this patient population was 0.84 kg for grip, 0.33 kg for tip, and 0.35 kg for tripod pinch for the affected right arm, and 1.12 kg for grip, 0.23 kg for tip, and 0.30 kg for tripod pinch for the unaffected left side, respectively.Conclusions Women with CMC OA have significantly decreased grip strength, tip, and tripod pinch as compared to their healthy counterparts and may suffer functional consequences due to this limitation.Clinical RelevanceOur study established the MCID for grip and pinch strength for individuals with CMC OA and their healthy counterparts.
    Rehabilitation nursing: the official journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses 12/2014; 25. DOI:10.1002/rnj.196 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    • "Hands have many physiological and anatomical changes associated with aging. Impaired hand abilities are observed among the elderly with metabolic and skeletal diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis [22]. Starting in middle age, men lose approximately a fifth of BMD over their lifetimes [23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Low grip strength is associated with decline in bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of spine fracture among the elderly. Smoking, a major factor determining BMD, is also known to have an indirect effect on bone loss. This study investigated whether smoking is associated with grip strength in the community-dwelling elderly in Korea. This study was an outcome of the second of three waves of the Hallym Aging Study from January to May 2007, a population-based study of Koreans aged 45 years and upwards dwelling in Chuncheon. Its 218 subjects comprised men aged 65 years or over. They were evaluated at a general hospital for socioeconomic status, smoking history, and various clinical measures including grip strength. Grip strength was higher in non-, ex-, and current smokers (33.7 kg, 30.6 kg, and 29.3 kg, respectively). Current smoking was found to increase the risk of decreased grip strength (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.58; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.31 to 16.04) compared with non-smoking, after adjustment for potential covariates including socioeconomic status. After adjustment for smoking effect, education of fewer than six years and monthly income of fewer than 500,000 Korean won increased the risk of decreased grip strength compared with education of more than six years (aOR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.08 to 7.66) and monthly income of more than 1,500,000 Korean won (aOR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.08 to 7.54). These results showed that current smoking, low education and low income were independent risk factors for decreased grip strength among elderly men in Korea.
    02/2013; 35:e2013001. DOI:10.4178/epih/e2013001
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    • "The ability to grip is one of the most important functions of the hand, and grip strength can be used to reflect overall muscular strength.[1] Several studies have shown that grip strength is inversely associated with all-cause mortality, functional impairments, frailty markers, cognitive impairments, physical disabilities, and nutritional status.[2-4] One example of using grip strength is the assessment of 'sarcopenia', which is characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with decreased physical performance.[5] "
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    ABSTRACT: Grip strength has been used as a measure of function in various health-related conditions. Although grip strength is known to be affected by both physical and psychological factors, few studies have looked at those factors comprehensively in a population-based cohort regarding elderly Koreans. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential factors influencing grip strength in elderly Koreans. We evaluated dominant hand grip strengths in 143 men and 123 women older than 65 years who participated in a population-based cohort study, the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA). Individuals who had a history of surgery for musculoskeletal disease or trauma in the upper extremity were excluded. Factors assessed for potential association with grip strength were; 1) demographics such as age and gender, 2) body constructs such as height, body mass index (BMI), and bone mineral density (BMD), 3) upper extremity functional status using disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) scores, and 4) mental health status using a depression scale and the short form-36 (SF36) mental health score. Multivariate analyses were performed in order to identify factors independently associated with grip strength. Grip strengths of dominant hands in elderly Koreans were found to generally decrease with aging, and were significantly different between men and women, as expected. Multivariate analyses indicated that grip strength was independently associated with age, height and BMI in men (R(2) = 21.3%), and age and height (R(2) = 19.7%) in women. BMD, upper extremity functional status, or mental health status were not found to be associated with grip strength. This study demonstrates that in elderly Koreans, grip strength is mainly influenced by age and height in both men and women, and additionally by BMI in men. BMD or self-reported physical or mental health status was not found to influence grip strength in elderly Koreans. This information may be helpful in future studies using grip strength as a measure of function in elderly Koreans.
    11/2012; 19(2):103-10. DOI:10.11005/jbm.2012.19.2.103
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