Hand force of men and women over 65 years of age as measured by maximum pinch and grip force.
ABSTRACT This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the impact of age and gender on 4 measures of grip and pinch force of well elderly community dwellers and to provide normative values. The hypotheses were that age and gender affect pinch and grip force and that these 2 factors might interact. Hand strength of 224 seniors 65-92 years old was tested. Grip and pinch force decreased in successively older age groups past 65 years. Men's grip force exceeded that of women in all age groups. Men's hand-force decline was steeper than that of women over successive age groups, suggesting that gender differences in force decreased with age. Trends were the same for all 4 types of grip- and pinch-force measurement but were most clearly visible in grip and key-pinch force. Norms were provided for seniors age 65-85+ years in 5-yr increments.
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ABSTRACT: PurposeThe primary objective of this study was to compare grip and pinch strength between women with carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) between affected and unaffected sides of the body in patients or dominant and nondominant sides in healthy subjects. The secondary aim was to establish the cutoff values scores for the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for grip strength, tip, and tripod pinch.DesignA prospective case controlled study.Methods One hundred ten women participated in the study. The CMC OA group consisted of 57 patients and the control group consisted of 53 healthy subjects. Grip strength, tip and tripod pinch were assessed bilaterally. The two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to determine the differences between sides of the body and between the groups.FindingsThe post hoc analysis indicated that the patients in the CMC OA group indicated statistically significant lower score on the grip and pinch strength (all, p < .001). The MCID from baseline score in this patient population was 0.84 kg for grip, 0.33 kg for tip, and 0.35 kg for tripod pinch for the affected right arm, and 1.12 kg for grip, 0.23 kg for tip, and 0.30 kg for tripod pinch for the unaffected left side, respectively.Conclusions Women with CMC OA have significantly decreased grip strength, tip, and tripod pinch as compared to their healthy counterparts and may suffer functional consequences due to this limitation.Clinical RelevanceOur study established the MCID for grip and pinch strength for individuals with CMC OA and their healthy counterparts.Rehabilitation nursing: the official journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses 12/2014; 25. DOI:10.1002/rnj.196 · 0.85 Impact Factor
Article: Arm-Hand Use in Healthy Older Adults[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our objectives were (1) to quantify arm-hand use of older adults without a disability and to determine the effects of hand dominance, gender, and day on hand usage and (2) to determine the factors that predict arm-hand use. This information will enhance understanding of the extent of the client's occupational performance. Twenty men and 20 women, ages 65-85, wore wrist and hip accelerometers for 7 consecutive days. Manual dexterity and grip strength were assessed. A three-way factorial analysis of variance and multiple linear regressions were conducted. The activity kilocounts from both wrist accelerometers revealed a significant interaction effect between hand and gender (F[1, 190] = 24.4, p < .001). Enhanced manual dexterity of the right hand was associated with greater right-hand use. Arm-hand use is a novel dimension of hand function measuring the extent of real-life occupational performance in the client's home.The American journal of occupational therapy.: official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association 11/2010; 64(6):877-85. DOI:10.5014/ajot.2010.09043 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim was to determine the maximum force that can be exerted on an object before it is pulled or slips from the grasp of the hand ("breakaway strength") for fixed overhead handholds of varying orientation, shape, and friction. Many studies have quantified hand strength by having participants squeeze, pull on, or create torque on an object or handle, but few studies have measured breakaway strength directly. In two experiments, hand strength was measured as both overhead breakaway strength for handholds typical of fixed industrial ladders and as maximum isometric grip strength measured using a common Jamar grip dynamometer. Breakaway strength was greatest for a fixed horizontal cylinder ("high friction"; 668 +/- 40 N and 691 +/- 132 N for Experiments 1 and 2, respectively), then for a horizontal cylinder that simulated low surface friction ("low friction"; 552 +/- 104 N), then for a vertical cylinder (435 +/- 27 N), and finally, for a vertical rectangular-shaped rail (337 +/- 24 N). Participants are capable of supporting only their own body weight with one hand when grasping the fixed horizontal cylinder. Breakaway strength for both the high- and low-friction horizontal cylinders was significantly greater than isometric grip strength (1.58 +/- 0.25 and 1.26 +/- 0.19 times, respectively). Results support the hypothesis that hand-handhold coupling is composed of active (isometric or eccentric finger flexion) and passive (frictional) components. Traditional isometric grip strength alone does not predict the strength of a couple between a hand and a handhold well. This research shows that handhold shape, orientation, and friction are important in the safe design of grab rails or ladders.Human Factors The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 10/2009; 51(5):705-17. DOI:10.1177/0018720809355969 · 1.29 Impact Factor