Trajectories of maternal depression over 7 years: Relations with child psychophysiology and behavior and role of contextual risks

University of Washington, USA.
Development and Psychopathology (Impact Factor: 4.89). 02/2008; 20(1):55-77. DOI: 10.1017/S0954579408000035
Source: PubMed


This study examines the relation between the longitudinal course of maternal depression during the child's early life and children's psychophysiology and behavior at age 6.5 years. One hundred fifty-nine children of depressed and nondepressed mothers were followed from infancy through age 6.5 years. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify classes of depressed mothers based on the longitudinal course of the mother's depression. School-aged children of chronically depressed mothers were found to have elevated externalizing behavior problems, decreased social competence, reduced frontal brain activation (EEG power), and higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity. Children of mothers with decreasing and stable mild depression were found to have increased hyperactivity and attention problems compared to children of nondepressed mothers. Contextual risk factors were found to mediate the relation between maternal depression and child behavioral outcomes.

26 Reads
    • "In relation to behavior problems in particular, two facets of maternal functioning appear to be critical. First, the results of numerous research studies indicate that maternal mental health, especially depressive symptomatology, is associated with child behavior problems (Ashman et al. 2008; Cents et al. 2013; Sterba et al. 2007). These associations between maternal depressive symptoms and children's behavior problems may be partly due to the biological effects of genetic loading and intra-uterine factors related to genetic transmission from mother to child (Cents et al. 2013; Goodman and Tully 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Children with disabilities tend to have higher levels of behavior problems than other children. Such problems have implications for psychopathology in the young adult years, with possible effects on life course opportunities such as employment and independent living. This investigation examines the developmental course of both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems by employing person-centered analyses to construct patterns of change in behavior problems in 169 children (54 % male) with early diagnosed disabilities, from age 3 to age 18. Early childhood predictors of these patterns indicated that more adverse patterns of both types of behavior problems were predicted by higher maternal depressive symptoms. Greater impacts on the family of having a child with a disability predicted more adverse patterns of internalizing behavior problems. More adaptive patterns of externalizing behavior problems were predicted by positive maternal sensitivity to a child's distress. These findings suggest the need for early intervention focused on the family system.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10802-015-0055-2 · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Although the consequences of chronic or recurrent maternal depression on offspring mental health are well known (Brennan et al., 2000), most studies of the impact of postnatal depression on child outcomes have addressed incompletely the course and severity of maternal depression. We identified few studies, and all of them from high-income countries, that modeled trajectories of maternal depression and studied the impact of these trajectories on child psychiatric disorders (Ashman et al., 2008; Campbell et al., 2007; Cents et al., 2013; Gross et al., 2009). Only two of these studies used a group-based modelling approach to empirically derive trajectories of maternal depression. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the course and severity of maternal depression and its effects on child psychiatric disorders from a longitudinal perspective. This study aimed to identify longitudinal patterns of maternal depression and to evaluate whether distinct depression trajectories predict particular psychiatric disorders in offspring. Cohort of 4231 births followed-up in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months and 6 years after delivery. Psychiatric disorders in 6-year-old children were evaluated through the development and well-being assessment (DAWBA) instrument. Trajectories of maternal depression were calculated using a group-based modelling approach. We identified five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: a "low" trajectory (34.8%), a "moderate low" (40.9%), a "increasing" (9.0%), a "decreasing" (9.9%), and a "high-chronic" trajectory (5.4%). The probability of children having any psychiatric disorder, as well as both internalizing and externalizing problems, increased as we moved from the "low" to the "high-chronic" trajectory. These differences were not explained by maternal and child characteristics examined in multivariate analyses. Data on maternal depression at 3-months was available on only a sub-sample. In addition, we had to rely on maternal report of child's behavior alone. The study revealed an additive effect on child outcome of maternal depression over time. We identified a group of mothers with chronic and severe symptoms of depression throughout the first six years of the child life and for this group child psychiatric outcome was particularly compromised. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 174C:424-431. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.12.012 · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Risk) failed to reach significance; predictions between DIS and C. Risk are not shown for the simplicity of the presentation (and because these relationships are not central to the current research questions), but are available on request from the author. (Ashman et al. 2008 ; Campbell et al. 2009). These findings corroborate the previous reports that rates of depression in females peak during pregnancy and in the early postnatal years (Kessler, 2003), and that latent class approaches can capture this peak but only if focused within early development (e.g. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Risk factors that are associated with depression in the mother also negatively affect the child. This research sought to extend current knowledge by examining the duration and timing of maternal depression as a moderator of: (1) the impact of dependent interpersonal stress (DIS), such as partner conflict or low social support, and contextual risk (e.g. poverty) on child dysregulation ; and (2) continuity in early child dysregulation. Method. Mother–child pairs (n=12 152) who participated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were examined between pregnancy and age 4 years. Data on maternal depression were collected five times between pregnancy and 33 months postpartum ; on DIS and contextual risk three times between pregnancy and 33 months ; and on child dysregulation at age 2 and 4 years. Results. Longitudinal latent class analysis identified a class of mothers (10%) who evinced a chronic level of depression between pregnancy and 33 months. For chronic-depressed versus non-depressed mothers, the results indicate that: (1) DIS predicted higher child dysregulation if experienced between pregnancy and age 2; (2) contextual risk had a differential effect on child dysregulation if experienced during pregnancy ; and (3) children had higher continuity in dysregulation between age 2 and age 4. Conclusions. Assessing the impact of the timing and duration of maternal depression, and different types of co-occurring risk factors, on child well-being is important. Maternal depression and associated DIS, in comparison to contextual risk, may be more responsive to intervention.
    Psychological Medicine 11/2012; 43(8). DOI:10.1017/S0033291712002450, · 5.94 Impact Factor
Show more