Caffeine, alcohol, smoking, and the risk of incident epithelial ovarian cancer

Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.89). 03/2008; 112(5):1169-77. DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23275
Source: PubMed


Smoking, caffeine, and alcohol intake are all potentially modifiable factors that have an unclear association with ovarian cancer risk. Therefore, the associations between these exposures and ovarian cancer risk were prospectively examined among 110,454 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) for the smoking analyses and 80,253 women for the dietary analyses.
Women completed biennial questionnaires assessing ovarian cancer risk factors beginning in 1976, with food frequency questionnaires administered every 2 to 4 years starting in 1980. For the smoking analyses, 737 confirmed cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were identified and for the dietary aims, 507 cases were identified through June 1, 2004.
Compared with never-smokers, neither current nor past smoking was associated with ovarian cancer risk overall; however, both were associated with mucinous tumors (n = 69; rate ratio [RR], past = 2.02 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-3.55]; RR, current = 2.22 [95% CI, 1.16-4.24]). A modest inverse association between caffeine intake and ovarian cancer risk was observed (RR, top vs bottom quintile = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.60-1.07 [P = .03]), which was strongest for women who had never used either oral contraceptives (RR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46-0.92 [P for heterogeneity = .02]) or postmenopausal hormones (RR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36-0.91 [P for heterogeneity = .13]). Alcohol was not associated with ovarian cancer risk.
The results of the current study suggest that cigarette smoking may only increase the risk for mucinous ovarian tumors, and alcohol intake was not associated with risk. However, an inverse association was observed between caffeine intake and ovarian cancer risk, particularly in women not using hormones; this finding merits further study.

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    • "Three epidemiologic studies were excluded because there was no direct assessment of tea intake [41], there was no assessment of the relationship between tea intake and EOC [42] or no confidence intervals were provided [43]. Other epidemiologic studies were excluded because green tea intake was not specifically measured [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59]. One study was reported twice [18] [19], and one study was first reported in an abstract form [16] and then as a peer-reviewed article [17]. "
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    Gynecologic Oncology 05/2012; 126(3):491-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ygyno.2012.04.048 · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    • "Ganmaa et al. (2008) observed no substantial association between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee with the onset or progression of breast cancer. However, their results suggested a weak inverse association between caffeine-containing beverages and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (Tworoger et al., 2008). The debate between the association of breast cancer and coffee consumption still needs to be settled. "
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    Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 04/2011; 51(4):363-73. DOI:10.1080/10408390903586412 · 5.18 Impact Factor
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    • "increase in risk of mucinous tumors. This finding may not be related to the differential effects of NSAIDs but to environmental carcinogens, as CYP2C9 may be also involved in detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced by cigarette smoking [61], a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia [62] and mucinous ovarian tumors [63]. In the current analysis, the association between CYP2C9 and mucinous ovarian tumors was more pronounced among participants with a history of smoking, although not statistically significant. "
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    International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics 01/2010; 1(4):320-31. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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