Nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure in non-Hodgkin lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma.
ABSTRACT Two patients with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, and monoclonal proteins of IgM in one, and IgG and lambda light chains in the second patient, nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure are reported. A 58-year-old man previously treated for pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia, developed 3 years later nephrotic syndrome as a complication of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma and high-paraprotein IgM kappa type. Immunofluorescent analysis of kidney biopsy showed extensive IgM and light kappa chain deposits, which caused membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Treatment with cyclophosphamide was ineffective and patient died 2 months later. The second patient is a 42-year-old female diagnosed with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma and paraprotein IgG lambda type. The course of the disease was fulminant with developing nephrotic syndrome and fatal acute renal failure. Immunofluorescent and light microscopic studies of kidney biopsy showed signs of immunotactoid glomerulonephritis with deposits of IgG and C3. Hemodyalises and cytostatic therapy were without response and she died after 45 days.
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ABSTRACT: Renal disease related to the deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulins containing both heavy and light chains can occur in type 1 cryoglobulinemia, Randall type light and heavy chain deposition disease (LHCDD), and immunotactoid glomerulonephritis. We report a novel phenotype of glomerular injury that does not conform to any of the previously described patterns of glomerular involvement by monoclonal gammopathy. Ten cases of unclassifiable proliferative glomerulonephritis manifesting glomerular monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) deposits were identified retrospectively from the archives of the Renal Pathology Laboratory of Columbia University over the past 3 years (biopsy incidence 0.21%). The monoclonal immunoglobulins formed granular electron dense deposits in mesangial, subendothelial, and subepithelial sites, mimicking ordinary immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis and producing a diffuse endocapillary proliferative or membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. However, by immunofluorescence, the deposits were monoclonal, staining for a single light chain isotype and a single gamma subclass (including two IgG1kappa, one IgG1lambda, one IgG2lambda, four IgG3kappa, and one IgG3lambda). All cases stained for the three constant domains of the gamma heavy chain (CH1, CH2, and CH3), suggesting deposition of a nondeleted immunoglobulin molecule. Tissue fixation of complement was observed in 90% of cases, and 40% of patients had hypocomplementemia. Clinical presentations included renal insufficiency in 80% (mean serum creatinine 2.8 mg/dL, range 0.9 to 8.0), proteinuria in 100% (mean urine protein 5.8 g/day; range 1.9 to 13.0), nephrotic syndrome in 44%, and microhematuria in 60%. A monoclonal serum protein with the same heavy and light chain isotype as that of the glomerular deposits was identified in 50% of cases (including three IgGkappa and two IgGlambda); however, no patient had clinical or laboratory features of type 1 cryoglobulinemia. No patient had overt myeloma or lymphoma at presentation or over the course of follow-up (mean 12 months). Glomerular deposition of monoclonal IgG can produce a proliferative glomerulonephritis that mimics immune-complex glomerulonephritis by light and electron microscopy. Proper recognition of this entity requires confirmation of monoclonality by staining for the gamma heavy chain subclasses.Kidney International 02/2004; 65(1):85-96. · 7.92 Impact Factor
- New England Journal of Medicine 08/1970; 283(3):123-9. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Severe nephrotic syndrome developed suddenly in a 67-year-old man. IgM M-component and bone marrow findings indicated a diagnosis of Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. High-titre IgM glomerular autoantibodies were found to reside mainly in the M-component. Immunofluorescent (IF) studies on serial kidney biopsies showed extensive IgM deposits that disappeared after treatment. Light microscopy of kidney biopsy appeared only slightly altered, but combined with electron microscopy could demonstrate changes that correlated well with IF findings. The latest biopsy showed interstitial infiltration in the kidney of atypical lympho-histiocytic cells. Morphological and immunological examination indicated that pathogenetic events started with minimal-change glomerulonephritis, causing release of glomerular antigen, that finally triggered a monoclonal IgM response and lymphoproliferative reaction. Intermittent treatment with chlorambucil and corticoids completely abolished the nephrotic syndrome and at the same time the changes in renal morphology largely disappeared.Clinical & Experimental Immunology 09/1980; 41(2):196-204. · 3.41 Impact Factor