An examination of the perceived social support levels of women in methadone maintenance treatment programs who experience various forms of intimate partner violence.
ABSTRACT Intimate partner violence (IPV) has emerged as a serious problem among women in drug treatment programs. Research has underscored the importance of social support for abused women as well as women who use substances.
The main objectives of this study were to describe the perceived social support levels and examine the associations between various forms of IPV and perceived levels of available social support perceived levels among a sample of women in drug treatment programs.
Face-to-face, structured interviews were conducted with randomly selected 416 women on methadone.
The prevalence of physical, sexual, and injurious IPV in the sample was 39%, 31%, and 16% respectively, and the combined IPV prevalence was 44.5%. Findings from multiple linear regression models revealed that lower levels of perceived social support were significantly associated with physical aggression (beta = -4.71; p = .0001), sexual assaults (beta = -4.10; p = .003), and injurious attacks (beta = -4.03; p = .022). Respondents perceived highest levels of social support from their "significant others" (mean = 5.64; standard deviation [SD] = 1.27) and lowest levels of social support from friends (mean = 4.20; SD = 1.48). The average network size was 2.7 individuals.
Findings from this study highlighted significantly lower levels of perceived social support levels for drug-using women in the context of IPV experiences. Interventions with these women should focus on strengthening social support networks that enable help seeking for both IPV and substance abuse issues.
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ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive, serious problem detrimental to the health of untold numbers of women. In addition to physical injuries that may be sustained, IPV has been significantly associated with mental health challenges including substance use problems. The problems are complex, highly correlated with each other, and bidirectional in nature. Although as many as 50% of women in mental health and between 25% and 50% of women in substance abuse treatment programs report IPV, frontline workers in all three sectors state they lack the training to address these co-occurring problems. To determine what frontline IPV, mental health, and substance use workers need to know in order to provide appropriate care to women experiencing co-occurring IPV, mental health and/or substance use problems. Using Scholars Portal OVID, Medline and OVID PsycINFO and combinations of significant terms, we conducted a scoping review of articles published between 2005 and 2014. An initial 4017 records were retrieved (3484 from Scholars Portal, 272 from Medline, 261 from PsycINFO). After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 35 articles were reviewed. Of these, 14 examined the relationships among IPV, mental health, and substance use; 7 focused on IPV and mental health; 14 looked at IPV and substance use. Although education and training frequently figured among the recommendations in the reviewed articles, specific content for proposed education or training was lacking. The most frequently occurring recommendations focused on the need to develop better collaboration, coordination, and integration across IPV, mental health and addiction treatment services.Global Health Action 11/2014; 7:24815. DOI:10.3402/gha.v7.24815 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Interpersonal trauma poses challenges and complications to the development and maintenance of personal networks of substance using women. Few studies have examined its effects on personal network support availability and quality of relationships, limiting our understanding of the social context in which substance using women with a history of trauma are embedded. Methods Women with substance use disorders (SUD) who received treatment at three county-funded, women-only intensive treatment programs (N = 375) were interviewed at intake and at follow ups 1, 6, and 12 months later. A network software program, Ego Net, elicited 25 network members per respondent, social support availability, and the quality of network relationship at each assessment. Trauma symptomatology was assessed with Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 at intake. Results Findings from longitudinal mixed model analyses indicated that higher levels of trauma symptomatology were associated with both a negative, critical quality and less closeness in network relationships over the 12 month study period. However, trauma symptoms were not related to the number of network members reported as providing emotional, concrete, or sobriety support. Effects of trauma symptoms on the support availability in the network and the quality of network relationships were consistent over the follow-up period. Conclusions Findings highlight the potential role of trauma symptoms in determining the quality of relationships within personal networks among women with SUD, suggesting the need for routine mapping of network relationships throughout treatment.Drug and Alcohol Dependence 09/2014; 142. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.06.032 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: One of the indicators critical to the success of violence reduction programmes among female sex workers (FSWs) is the pattern of disclosure of violence. This study examines the rate of non-disclosure of violence among FSWs in India by perpetrators of violence and programme exposure. Methods: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study conducted among FSWs in 2009 across four states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The analytical sample included 1341 FSWs who experienced physical violence in past six months. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by state was conducted to examine predictors of nondisclosure. Results: About 54% of FSWs did not disclose their experience of violence to anyone with considerable variations in the pattern of disclosure across states. Another 36% of FSWs shared the experience with NGO worker/peer. Compared to violence perpetrated by paying partners/stranger, that by non-paying partner were twice more likely to report nondisclosure (53% vs. 68%, Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.3-2.4). Similarly, FSWs who were not registered with an NGO/sex worker collective were 40% more likely to report non-disclosure of violence against those registered (58% vs. 53%, AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9). Conclusions: Non-disclosure of physical violence is quite high among FSWs which can be a barrier to the success of violence reduction efforts. Immediate efforts are required to understand the reasons behind non-disclosure based on which interventions can be developed. Community collectivisation and designing gender-based interventions with the involvement of non-paying partners should be the way forward.PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e98321. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098321 · 3.53 Impact Factor