The Number of Metastatic Lymph Nodes and the Ratio Between Metastatic and Examined Lymph Nodes Are Independent Prognostic Factors in Esophageal Cancer Regardless of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation or Lymphadenectomy Extent
ABSTRACT To investigate whether the number of lymph nodes metastasis (LNMs) and the ratio between metastatic and examined lymph nodes (LNs) are better prognostic factors when compared with traditional staging systems in patients with esophageal carcinoma.
The accuracy of the 6th UICC/TNM classification is suboptimal, especially when not taking into account neoadjuvant therapy and lymphadenectomy extent.
For 536 patients who underwent curative en bloc esophagectomy, in whom 51.5% (n = 276) received neoadjuvant chemoradiation, LNMs were classified according to the 6th UICC/TNM classification and systems based on the number (< or =4 and >4) or the ratio (< or =0.2 and >0.2) of LNMs. Survival of the respective stages, predictors of survival, and influence of both chemoradiation and number of examined LNs were studied.
After a median follow-up of 50 months, the 5-year survival rates were 47% for the entire population, significantly poorer for patients with >4 LNMs (8% vs. 53%, P < 0.001) or a ratio of LNMs >0.2 (22% vs. 54%, P < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding variables, a number of LNMs >4 and a ratio of LNMs >0.2 were the only predictors of poor prognosis. The prognostic role of both the number and the ratio of LNMs was maintained whether patients received neoadjuvant chemoradiation or not. Moreover, LN ratio is shown to be more accurate for inadequately staged patients (<15 examined LNs), whereas the number of LNMs is pertinent for adequately staged patients (> or =15 examined LNs).
Staging systems for esophageal cancer that use the number (< or =4 or >4) and the ratio (< or =0.2 or >0.2) of LNMs have greater prognostic importance than the current staging systems because of the good stratification of the groups and their clinical utility, taking into account neoadjuvant therapy and lymphadenectomy extent.
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ABSTRACT: Background: The optimum multimodal treatment for oesophageal cancer, and the prognostic significance of histopathological tumour involvement of the circumferential resection margin (CRM+) are uncertain. The aims of this study were to determine the prognostic significance of CRM+ after oesophagectomy and to identify endosonographic (endoluminal ultrasonography (EUS)) features that predict a threatened CRM+. Methods: Two hundred and sixty-nine consecutive patients underwent potentially curative oesophagectomy (103 surgery alone, 124 neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CS) and 42 chemoradiotherapy (CRTS)). Primary outcome measures were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: CRM+ was reported in 98 (38.0%) of all, and in 90 (62.5%) of pT3 patients. Multivariate analysis of pathological factors revealed: lymphovascular invasion (HR 2.087, 95% CI 1.396–3.122, P<0.0001), CRM+ (HR 1.762, 95% CI 1.201–2.586, P=0.004) and lymph node metastasis count (HR 1.563, 95% CI 1.018–2.400, P=0.041) to be independently and significantly associated with DFS. Lymphovascular invasion (HR 2.160, 95% CI 1.432–3.259, P<0.001) and CRM+ (HR 1.514, 95% CI 1.000–2.292, P=0.050) were also independently and significantly associated with OS. Multivariate analysis revealed EUS T stage (T3 or T4, OR 24.313, 95% CI 7.438–79.476, P<0.0001) and use or not of CRTS (OR 0.116, 95% CI 0.035–0.382, P<0.0001) were independently and significantly associated with CRM+. Conclusion: A positive CRM was a better predictor of DFS and OS than standard pTNM stage.British Journal of Cancer 11/2012; 107(12). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2012.511 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alternative lymph node (LN) parameters have been proposed to improve staging in colorectal cancer. This study compared these alternative parameters with conventional TNM staging in predicting long-term survival in patients undergoing curative resection. A total of 295 consecutive patients (mean age 70 years; range 39-95; s.d. 10.4) underwent resection for colorectal cancer from 2001 to 2004. Age, sex, primary tumour site, TNM stage and chemotherapy/radiotherapy were recorded. Patients with colon and rectal cancers were analysed separately for LN parameters: LN total; adequate LN retrieval (> or =12) and inadequate (<12); total number of negative LN; total number of positive LN and the ratio of positive LN to total LN (pLNR). Univariate and multivariate survival analysis was performed. The median number of LN retrieved was 10 (1-57) with adequate LN retrieval in 147 cases (49.8%). For each T and N stage, inadequate LN retrieval did not adversely affect long-term survival (P>0.05). On multivariate analysis, only pLNR was an independent predictor of overall survival in both colon and rectal cancers (HR 11.65, 95% CI 5.00-27.15, P<0.001 and HR 13.40, 95% CI 3.64-49.10, P<0.001, respectively). Application of pLNR subdivided patients into four prognostic groups. Application of the pLNR improved patient stratification in colorectal cancer and should be considered in future staging systems.British Journal of Cancer 04/2009; 100(10):1530-3. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605049 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Even though the primacy of surgical resection has been challenged by the era of definitive radiochemotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the oesophagus, it has reestablished itself as the treatment of choice for the majority of operable patients as it allows for enhanced loco-regional disease control and a prolonged survival. To obtain such results, surgical managementmust achieve certain quality criteria, not only on the operative front but also at the levels of organisation and patient peri-operative care. This document provides an update regarding the current quality criteria for the oncological resection of cancers of the oesophagus and oesophago-gastric junction.Oncologie 03/2013; 15(3-4). DOI:10.1007/s10269-013-2264-z · 0.08 Impact Factor