A heterotopic primate model for facial composite tissue transplantation.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to develop a nonhuman primate model for heterotopic composite tissue facial transplantation in which to study the natural history of facial transplantation and evaluate immunosuppressive regimens.A composite oromandibular facial segment transplant based on the common carotid artery was evaluated. Flaps from 7 cynomolgus monkeys were transplanted to the groins of 7 recipients at the superficial femoral artery and vein. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of thymoglobulin, rapamycin, and tacrolimus. Allograft survival ranged from 6 to 129 days. Histology performed in the long-term survivor at the time of necropsy revealed extensive inflammation and necrosis of the allograft skin; however, muscle and bone elements were viable, with minimal inflammation. This heterotopic facial transplantation model avoids the potential morbidity of mandibular resection and orthotopic facial transplantation. Our work also concurs with the work of other groups who found that the skin component is the most antigenic.
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ABSTRACT: The ethical discussion of facial allograft transplantation (FAT) for severe facial deformity, popularly known as facial transplantation, has been one sided and sensationalistic. It is based on film and fiction rather than science and clinical experience. Based on our experience in developing the first IRB approved protocol for FAT, we critically discuss the problems with this discussion, which overlooks the plight of individuals with severe facial deformities. We discuss why FAT for facial deformity is ethically and surgically justified despite its negative portrayal in the media.Journal of Medical Ethics 01/2006; 31(12):707-9. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study explored the effects of different doses of FK506 on peripheral nerve regeneration, to determine whether neuroregeneration could be enhanced without the toxicity of systemic immunosuppression. In the first part of the study, subimmunosuppressive doses of FK506 were determined by examining skin allograft survival in a rat model. Full-thickness skin grafts (2 cm2) from Wistar rats were grafted to recipient Lewis rats. The procedure was performed for six groups (n = 6). The control group received no FK506, and the other five groups received daily doses of FK506 of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg. Animals that received 2.0 mg/kg FK506 per day exhibited complete skin graft take, whereas all other groups demonstrated complete rejection. After determination of the immunosuppressive dose of FK506, the neuroregenerative effects of different doses of FK506 were explored by assessing nerve regeneration in 80 rats after tibial nerve transection and repair. The control group received no FK506, whereas the other four groups were given daily doses of FK506 of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg. Rats were euthanized at three time points (25, 30, and 35 days), to fully investigate the effects of different FK506 dosing regimens on neuroregeneration. Histomorphometric analyses performed on postoperative days 30 and 35 demonstrated statistically significant improvements in neuroregeneration with subimmunosuppressive FK506 doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg per day. Therefore, the study demonstrated that neuroregeneration was enhanced at low doses of FK506 that were not sufficient to prevent skin allograft rejection.Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery 01/2004; 112(7):1832-40. · 3.54 Impact Factor
- New England Journal of Medicine 07/1998; 338(24):1741-51. · 51.66 Impact Factor