Effect of SIVmac infection on plasmacytoid and CD1c+ myeloid dendritic cells in cynomolgus macaques.
ABSTRACT Dendritic cells (DCs) are known to be essential for the induction and regulation of immune responses. Non-human primates are essential in biomedical research and contribute to our understanding of the involvement of DCs in human infectious diseases. However, no direct single-platform method for quantifying DC precursors has yet been optimized in macaques to give accurate absolute blood counts of these rare-event cell populations in the blood. We adapted a rapid whole-blood assay for the absolute quantification of DCs in cynomolgus macaques by four-colour flow cytometry, using a single-platform assay compatible with human blood. Cynomolgus macaque plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and CD1c(+) myeloid DCs (CD1c(+) mDCs) were quantified in the blood of 34 healthy macaques and the results obtained were compared with those for blood samples from 11 healthy humans. In addition, circulating absolute numbers of pDCs were quantified in cynomolgus macaques chronically infected with SIVmac. During infection, pDC counts decreased whereas circulating CD1c(+) mDC counts increased. Information regarding absolute pDC and mDC counts in non-human primates may improve our understanding of the role of these cells in SIV/HIV infection and in other infectious diseases.
Article: NKp46 is the major triggering receptor involved in the natural cytotoxicity of fresh or cultured human NK cells. Correlation between surface density of NKp46 and natural cytotoxicity against autologous, allogeneic or xenogeneic target cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: NKp46 is a novel triggering receptor expressed by all human NK cells that is involved in natural cytotoxicity. In this study we show that the surface density of NKp46 may vary in different NK cells and that a precise correlation exists between the NKp46 phenotype of NK clones and their natural cytotoxicity against HLA-class I-unprotected allogeneic or xenogeneic cells. Thus, NKp46bright clones efficiently lysed human and murine tumor cells while NKp46dull clones were poorly cytolytic against both types of target cells. We also show that the NKp46 phenotype of NK clones correlates with their ability to lyse HLA-class I-unprotected autologous cells. Finally, NKp46 was found to be deeply involved in the natural cytotoxicity mediated by freshly derived NK cells. This was indicated both by the inhibition of cytolysis after monoclonal antibody-mediated masking of NKp46 and by the correlation existing between the natural cytotoxicity of fresh NK cells derived from different donors and their NKp46 phenotype. In conclusion, these studies strongly support the concept that NKp46 plays a central role in the physiological triggering of NK cells and, as a consequence (in concert with killer inhibitory receptors), in the NK-mediated clearance of abnormal cells expressing inadequate amounts of HLA-class I molecules.European Journal of Immunology 06/1999; 29(5):1656-66. · 5.10 Impact Factor
Article: Homologous desensitization of muscarinic cholinergic, histaminergic, adrenergic, and serotonergic receptors coupled to phospholipase C in cerebellar granule cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cultured cerebellar granule cells express phospholipase C-coupled muscarinic cholinergic, histaminergic, alpha 1-adrenergic, and serotonergic receptors. In an attempt to study desensitization of these neurotransmitter receptors, cells were prestimulated with saturating concentrations of carbachol, histamine, norepinephrine, or serotonin during the labeling of cells with myo-[3H]inositol and then rechallenged with various receptor agonists for their ability to elicit accumulation of [3H]inositol monophosphate in the presence of lithium. Prestimulation with each of these receptor agonists was found to cause a time-dependent desensitization to subsequent stimulation with the desensitizing agonist. Thus, prestimulation for 0.5, 4, and 18 h decreased carbachol response to 87 +/- 4, 52 +/- 2, and 40 +/- 1% of the control, respectively; histamine response to 37 +/- 2, 24 +/- 2, and 18 +/- 2%, respectively; norepinephrine response to 55 +/- 5, 14 +/- 1, and 10 +/- 1%, respectively; and serotonin response to 36 +/- 1, 18 +/- 1, and 9 +/- 2%, respectively. In all cases, the responses mediated by receptors which were not prestimulated remained virtually unchanged, thus indicating homologous desensitization. Dose-response studies indicate that the desensitization was associated with a major reduction in the maximal extent of agonist-induced responses. The basal accumulation was markedly enhanced following 0.5- and 4-h prestimulation, but returned to near normal after 18-h pretreatment. Biologically active phorbol ester, 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, rapidly attenuated basal phospholipase C activity, as well as the responses mediated by carbachol, histamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, suggesting that activation and translocation of protein kinase C might play a role in the desensitization of phospholipase C-coupled receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Journal of Neurochemistry 03/1989; 52(2):598-603. · 4.06 Impact Factor