Current concepts review: comprehensive physical examination for instability of the knee.
ABSTRACT A careful history and physical examination are the cornerstones of orthopaedic sports medicine. When evaluating a patient for ligamentous instability of the knee joint, an understanding of the contribution of anatomic structures to stability enhances a practitioner's ability to achieve an accurate clinical diagnosis. This article reviews the various types of knee instability and the associated anatomic structures. Ultimately, information must be obtained from multiple tests to reach the final diagnosis. We describe in detail the pathologic and biomechanical basis of the tests for both tibiofemoral and patellofemoral instability of the knee joint and provide recommendations for performance and interpretation of these physical examinations.
Article: Knee stability assessment on anterior cruciate ligament injury: Clinical and biomechanical approaches.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is common in knee joint accounting for 40% of sports injury. ACL injury leads to knee instability, therefore, understanding knee stability assessments would be useful for diagnosis of ACL injury, comparison between operation treatments and establishing return-to-sport standard. This article firstly introduces a management model for ACL injury and the contribution of knee stability assessment to the corresponding stages of the model. Secondly, standard clinical examination, intra-operative stability measurement and motion analysis for functional assessment are reviewed. Orthopaedic surgeons and scientists with related background are encouraged to understand knee biomechanics and stability assessment for ACL injury patients.Sports Medicine Arthroscopy Rehabilitation Therapy & Technology 09/2009; 1(1):20.