Two-part random effects models (J. Am. Statist. Assoc. 2001; 96:730-745; Statist. Methods Med. Res. 2002; 11:341-355) have been applied to longitudinal studies for semi-continuous outcomes, characterized by a large portion of zero values and continuous non-zero (positive) values. Examples include repeated measures of daily drinking records, monthly medical costs, and annual claims of car insurance. However, the question of how to apply such models to multi-level data settings remains. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-level two-part random effects model. Distinct random effects are used to characterize heterogeneity at different levels. Maximum likelihood estimation and inference are carried out through Gaussian quadrature technique, which can be implemented conveniently in freely available software-aML. The model is applied to the analysis of repeated measures of the daily drinking record in a randomized controlled trial of topiramate for alcohol-dependence treatment.
"We used a multivariable two-part random effects model (Tooze et al., 2002; Liu et al., 2008) to determine factors affecting the mean abundance of juvenile sea lice at farm i for week t (Y i,t ). This model permitted us to account for a substantial proportion of zeros (i.e., Y i,t = 0) in the dataset (12.4%). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The decline of fisheries over recent decades and a growing human population has coincided with an increase in aquaculture production. As farmed fish densities increase, so have their rates of infectious diseases, as predicted by the theory of density-dependent disease transmission. One of the pathogen that has increased with the growth of salmon farming is sea lice. Effective management of this pathogen requires an understanding of the spatial scale of transmission. We used a two-part multi-scale model to account for the zero-inflated data observed in weekly sea lice abundance levels on rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon farms in Chile, and to assess internal (farm) and external (regional) sources of sea lice infection. We observed that the level of juvenile sea lice was higher on farms that were closer to processing plants with fish holding facilities. Further, evidence for sea lice exposure from the surrounding area was supported by a strong positive correlation between the level of juvenile sea lice on a farm and the number of gravid females on neighboring farms within 30km two weeks prior. The relationship between external sources of sea lice from neighboring farms and juvenile sea lice on a farm was one of the strongest detected in our multivariable model. Our findings suggest that the management of sea lice should be coordinated between farms and should include all farms and processing plants with holding facilities within a relatively large geographic area. Understanding the contribution of pathogens on a farm from different sources is an important step in developing effective control strategies.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 04/2013; 111(1). DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.03.015 · 2.17 Impact Factor
"Two-part models can account for the concentration of excessive zero-valued observations. This approach uses logistic regression to predict the probability of occurrence of a non-zero value in the first part, and linear regression to predict the amount of the non-zero values in the second part . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Piglet isosporosis is one of the most common parasitic diseases in modern pig production. To prevent clinical disease, prophylactic treatment of piglets with toltrazuril (BAYCOX® 5%, Bayer HealthCare, Animal Health, Monheim, Germany) is widely practiced in the past 20 years. There are only very few reports documenting the likely effect of managerial practices, such as hygiene measures, all-in-all-out management of farrowing facilities and piglet manipulations, and/or farm-specific environment - i.e. design and materials of the farrowing pen and room - in the risk of disease occurrence and transmission. Therefore, in this cross-sectional study, we identified litter- and herd-level factors associated with the odds and the level of Isospora suis oocyst excretion in nursing piglets of Greek farrow-to-finish pig herds. Faecal samples were collected from 314 liters of 55 randomly selected herds. Oocyst counts were determined by a modified McMaster technique and possible risk-factor data were collected through a questionnaire. In the analysis, we employed a two-part model that simultaneously assessed the odds and the level of oocyst excretion.
Factors associated with lower odds of oocyst excretion were: use of toltrazuril treatment, all-in all-out management of the farrowing rooms, no cross-fostering or fostering during the first 24 hours after farrowing, plastic flooring in the farrowing pens, farrowing rooms with more than fourteen farrowing pens and employment of more than two caretakers in the farrowing section. Factors associated with lower oocyst excretion level were: use of toltrazuril treatment and caretakers averting from entering into farrowing pens.
Apart from prophylactic treatment with toltrazuril, the risk and the level of I. suis oocyst excretion from piglets in their second week of life, was associated with managerial and environmental factors. Changes in these factors, which may enhance prevention of piglet isosporosis – either alternatively or supplementary to medical control – are of increasing importance because of the likely development of resistant parasites under the currently widespread use of anticoccidial compounds.
BMC Veterinary Research 11/2012; 8(1):228. DOI:10.1186/1746-6148-8-228 · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present an architecture that enables developers to build applications that can flexibly control downloaded executable content. The architecture includes an access control model for representing security requirements and a browser service for deriving application requirements from signed content messages and executing content in limited domains.
Object-Orientation in Operating Systems, 1996., Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on; 11/1996
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