Muscle RING-Finger Protein-1 (MuRF1) as a Connector of Muscle Energy Metabolism and Protein Synthesis

Department of Enzymatic Regulation for Cell Functions (Calpain Project), Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science (Rinshoken), Tokyo 113-8613, Japan.
Journal of Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 4.33). 04/2008; 376(5):1224-36. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2007.11.049
Source: PubMed


During pathophysiological muscle wasting, a family of ubiquitin ligases, including muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1), has been proposed to trigger muscle protein degradation via ubiquitination. Here, we characterized skeletal muscles from wild-type (WT) and MuRF1 knockout (KO) mice under amino acid (AA) deprivation as a model for physiological protein degradation, where skeletal muscles altruistically waste themselves to provide AAs to other organs. When WT and MuRF1 KO mice were fed a diet lacking AA, MuRF1 KO mice were less susceptible to muscle wasting, for both myocardium and skeletal muscles. Under AA depletion, WT mice had reduced muscle protein synthesis, while MuRF1 KO mice maintained nonphysiologically elevated levels of skeletal muscle protein de novo synthesis. Consistent with a role of MuRF1 for muscle protein turnover during starvation, the concentrations of essential AAs, especially branched-chain AAs, in the blood plasma significantly decreased in MuRF1 KO mice under AA deprivation. To clarify the molecular roles of MuRF1 for muscle metabolism during wasting, we searched for MuRF1-associated proteins using pull-down assays and mass spectrometry. Muscle-type creatine kinase (M-CK), an essential enzyme for energy metabolism, was identified among the interacting proteins. Coexpression studies revealed that M-CK interacts with the central regions of MuRF1 including its B-box domain and that MuRF1 ubiquitinates M-CK, which triggers the degradation of M-CK via proteasomes. Consistent with MuRF1's role of adjusting CK activities in skeletal muscles by regulating its turnover in vivo, we found that CK levels were significantly higher in the MuRF1 KO mice than in WT mice. Glucocorticoid modulatory element binding protein-1 and 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase, previously identified as potential MuRF1-interacting proteins, were also ubiquitinated MuRF1-dependently. Taken together, these data suggest that, in a multifaceted manner, MuRF1 participates in the regulation of AA metabolism, including the control of free AAs and their supply to other organs under catabolic conditions, and in the regulation of ATP synthesis under metabolic-stress conditions where MuRF1 expression is induced.

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    • "The levels of mRNA expression were normalized by those of housekeeping Hprt because its expression was stable during fasting in all tested tissues. As the ubiquitin–proteasome system marker, we examined the expression of Atrogin-1 (also known as MAFbx [Muscle Atrophy F-box]) and MuRF1 (Muscle RING Finger 1; also known as Trim63 [Muscle Atrophy F-box]), the two E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in skeletal muscle atrophy [9] [10]. The expression of Atrogin-1 was significantly upregulated upon fasting in skeletal muscle >> small intestine, thymus > heart, colon, lung > spleen, kidney > stomach (Fig. 2A). "
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary or caloric restriction confers various clinical benefits. Short-term fasting of mice is a common experimental procedure that may involve systemic metabolic remodeling, which may significantly affect experimental outputs. This study evaluated adaptive cellular responses after 1- or 2-day fasting in 13 mouse tissues by quantitative PCR using 15 marker primer sets for the activation of ubiquitin-proteasome (Atrogin-1 and MuRF1), autophagy-lysosome (LC3b, p62 and Lamp2), amino acid response (Asns, Trib3, Herpud1, xCT, and Chop), Nrf2-mediated antioxidant (HO-1 and Gsta1), and amino acid transport (Slc38a2, Slc7a5, and Slc7a1) systems. Differential activation profiles obtained in seven highly (thymus, liver, spleen, and small intestine) or mildly (stomach, kidney, and colon) atrophied tissues as well as in six non-atrophied tissues (brain, eye, lung, heart, skeletal muscle, and testis) suggested tissue-specific active metabolic remodeling.
    FEBS Open Bio 04/2015; 5. DOI:10.1016/j.fob.2015.04.012 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    • "However, given the normal hypertrophic response to FO in the MuRF1 KO mice, it seems that MuRF1 is not essential for muscle growth. Considering that protein synthesis is higher in MuRF1 KO mice under atrophy conditions (Koyama et al., 2008; Baehr et al., 2011), it may be that the major role of MuRF1 in skeletal muscle is to suppress protein synthesis. Thus, deletion of MuRF1 is advantageous to muscle growth and consequently, the MuRF1 KO mice maintain an ability to hypertrophy throughout their lifetime. "
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    ABSTRACT: The regulation of skeletal muscle mass depends on the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. The role of protein degradation and in particular, the ubiquitin proteasome system, and increased expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligases, MuRF1 and MAFbx/atrogin-1, in the regulation of muscle size in response to growth stimuli is unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to measure both proteasome activity and protein synthesis in mice over a 14-day period of chronic loading using the functional overload (FO) model. Further, the importance of MuRF1 and MAFbx expression in regulating muscle hypertrophy was examined by measuring muscle growth in response to FO in mice with a null deletion (KO) of either MuRF1 or MAFbx. In wild type (WT) mice, the increase in muscle mass correlated with significant increases (2-fold) in protein synthesis at 7 and 14 days. Interestingly, proteasome activity significantly increased in WT mice after one day, and continued to increase, peaking at 7 days following FO. The increase in proteasome activity was correlated with increases in the expression of the Forkhead transcription factors, FOXO1 and FOXO3a, which increased after both MuRF1 and MAFbx increased and returned to baseline. As in WT mice, hypertrophy in the MuRF1 and MAFbx KO mice was associated with significant increases in proteasome activity after 14 days of FO. The increase in plantaris mass was similar between the WT and MuRF1 KO mice following FO, however, muscle growth was significantly reduced in female MAFbx KO mice. Collectively, these results indicate that muscle hypertrophy is associated with increases in both protein synthesis and degradation. Further, MuRF1 or MAFbx expression is not required to increase proteasome activity following increased loading, however, MAFbx expression may be required for proper growth/remodeling of muscle in response to increase loading.
    Frontiers in Physiology 02/2014; 5:69. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00069 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    • "Expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 [8], [9] as well as proteasome activity [10] is regulated by insulin in skeletal muscle via the PI3Kinase/Akt signaling pathway. The essential role of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 in maintaining skeletal muscle mass [11], [12], [13] makes these two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases attractive targets for pharmacological intervention in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired insulin signaling is a key feature of type 2 diabetes and is associated with increased ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent protein degradation in skeletal muscle. An extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (termed PMI5011) improves insulin action by increasing insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. We sought to determine if the effect of PMI5011 on insulin signaling extends to regulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. C2C12 myotubes and the KK-A(y) murine model of type 2 diabetes were used to evaluate the effect of PMI5011 on steady-state levels of ubiquitylation, proteasome activity and expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases that are upregulated with impaired insulin signaling. Our results show that PMI5011 inhibits proteasome activity and steady-state ubiquitylation levels in vitro and in vivo. The effect of PMI5011 is mediated by PI3K/Akt signaling and correlates with decreased expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Under in vitro conditions of hormonal or fatty acid-induced insulin resistance, PMI5011 improves insulin signaling and reduces Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 protein levels. In the KK-A(y) murine model of type 2 diabetes, skeletal muscle ubiquitylation and proteasome activity is inhibited and Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expression is decreased by PMI5011. PMI5011-mediated changes in the ubiquitin-proteasome system in vivo correlate with increased phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO3a and increased myofiber size. The changes in Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expression, ubiquitin-proteasome activity and myofiber size modulated by PMI5011 in the presence of insulin resistance indicate the botanical extract PMI5011 may have therapeutic potential in the preservation of muscle mass in type 2 diabetes.
    PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e57112. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0057112 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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