Mitral regurgitation augments post-myocardial infarction remodeling failure of hypertrophic compensation.

Cardiac Ultrasound Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 15.34). 02/2008; 51(4):476-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.07.093
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We examined whether mitral regurgitation (MR) augments post-myocardial infarction (MI) remodeling.
MR doubles mortality after MI, but its additive contribution to left ventricular (LV) remodeling is debated and has not been addressed in a controlled fashion.
Apical MIs were created in 12 sheep, and 6 had an LV-to-left atrial shunt implanted, consistently producing regurgitant fractions of approximately 30%. The groups were compared at baseline, 1, and 3 months.
Left ventricular end-systolic volume progressively increased by 190% with MR versus 90% without MR (p < 0.02). Pre-load-recruitable stroke work declined by 82 +/- 13% versus 25 +/- 16% (p < 0.01) with MR, with decreased remote-zone sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase levels (0.56 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.76 +/- 0.02, p < 0.001), and decreased isolated myocyte contractility. In remote zones, pro-hypertrophic Akt and gp130 were upregulated in both groups at 1 month, but significantly lower and below baseline in the MR group at 3 months. Pro-apoptotic caspase 3 remained high in both groups. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and membrane-type MMP-1 were increased in remote zones of MR versus infarct-only animals at 1 month, then fell below baseline. The MMP tissue inhibitors rose from baseline to 3 months in all animals, rising higher in the MI + MR-group border zone.
In this controlled model, moderate MR worsens post-MI remodeling, with reduced contractility. Pro-hypertrophic pathways are initially upregulated but subsequently fall below infarct-only levels and baseline; with sustained caspase 3 elevation, transformation to a failure phenotype occurs. Extracellular matrix turnover increases in MR animals. Therefore, MR can precipitate an earlier onset of dilated heart failure.

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    ABSTRACT: Pathological left ventricle (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) results in reactive and replacement fibrosis. Volume overload LVH (VOH) is less profibrotic than pressure overload LVH (POH). Studies attribute subendocardial fibrosis in POH to ischaemia, and reduced fibrosis in VOH to collagen degradation favouring dilatation. However, the mechanical origin of the relative lack of fibrosis in VOH is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that reduced ischaemia propensity in VOH compared to POH accounted for the reduced replacement fibrosis, along with reduced reactive fibrosis. Rats with POH (ascending aortic banding) evolved into either compensated-concentric POH (POH-CLVH) or dilated cardiomyopathy (POH-DCM); they were compared to VOH (aorta-caval fistula). We quantified LV fibrosis, structural and haemodynamic factors of ischaemia propensity, and the activation of profibrotic pathways. Fibrosis in POH-DCM was severe, subendocardial and subepicardial, in contrast with subendocardial fibrosis in POH-CLVH and nearly no fibrosis in VOH. The propensity for ischaemia was more important in POH versus VOH, explaining different patterns of replacement fibrosis. LV collagen synthesis and maturation, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression, were more important in POH. The angiotensin II-transforming growth-factor axis was enhanced in POH, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was overexpressed in all types of LVH. LV resistin expression was markedly elevated in POH, mildly elevated in VOH and independently reflected chronic ischaemic injury after myocardial infarction. In vitro, resistin is induced by angiotensin II and induces CTGF in cardiomyocytes. Based on these findings, we conclude that a reduced ischaemia propensity and attenuated upstream reactive fibrotic pathways account for the attenuated fibrosis in VOH versus POH.
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