Incidence and risk of hypertension with sorafenib in patients with cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ABSTRACT Sorafenib is used in patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) or hepatocellular cancer, and its application in other types of cancers is also undergoing extensive clinical assessment. Hypertension is one of the major side-effects of this drug, and reported incidences vary substantially between clinical trials. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of published clinical trials to establish the incidence of hypertension associated with sorafenib. The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the overall risk of hypertension in patients with cancer who receive sorafenib.
Databases, including Medline (July, 1966, to July, 2007), and Web of Science, and abstracts presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meetings from 2004 to 2007 were searched to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies were prospective clinical trials of patients with cancer assigned single-drug sorafenib at 400 mg twice daily with data on hypertension available. Incidence and relative risk (RR) of hypertension were calculated using a random-effects or fixed-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies.
Nine studies published between January, 2006, and July, 2007, which included a total of 4599 patients with RCC or other solid tumours, were selected from 223 articles screened for analysis. For patients assigned sorafenib, the overall incidence of all-grade and high-grade (ie, grade 3 or 4) hypertension were 23.4% (95% CI 16.0-32.9%) and 5.7% (2.5-12.6%), respectively. No significant difference was noted between patients with RCC or a non-RCC malignancy (all grade: RR 1.03 [95% CI 0.73-1.45], p=0.89; high-grade: RR 1.23 [0.76-1.99], p=0.40) who were assigned sorafenib. Sorafenib was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-grade hypertension in patients with cancer with an RR of 6.11 (2.44-15.32], p<0.001) compared with controls.
Patients with cancer assigned sorafenib have a significant risk of developing hypertension. Appropriate monitoring and treatment is strongly recommended to prevent cardiovascular complications.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Fatal adverse events (FAEs) have been reported with sorafenib, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor kinase inhibitor (VEGFR TKI). We here performed an up-to-date and detailed meta-analysis to determine the overall risk of FAEs associated with sorafenib. Methods: Databases, including PubMed, Embase and Web of Science, and abstracts presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meetings were searched to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials evaluating sorafenib effects in patients with all malignancies. Summary incidence rates, relative risks (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for FAEs. In addition, subgroup analyses were performed according to tumor type and therapy regimen. Results: 13 trials recruiting 5,546 patients were included in our analysis. The overall incidence of FAEs with sorafenib was 1.99% (95%CI, 0.98-4.02%). Patients treated with sorafenib had a significantly increased risk of FAEs compared with patients treated with control medication, with an RR of 1.77 (95%CI 1.25-2.52, P=0.001). Risk varied with tumour type, but appeared independent of therapy regimen. A significantly increased risk of FAEs was observed in patients with lung cancer (RR 2.26; 95% CI 1.03-4.99; P= 0.043) and renal cancer (RR 1.84; 95% CI 1.15-2.94; P= 0.011). The most common causes of FAEs were hemorrhage (8.6%) and thrombus or embolism (4.9%). Conclusions: It is important for health care practitioners to be aware of the risks of FAEs associated with sorafenib, especially in patients with renal and lung cancer.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 11/2013; 14(11):6681-6. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.11.6681 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background:This phase I dose-finding trial evaluated safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of axitinib, a potent and selective second-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, combined with platinum doublets in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other solid tumours.Methods:In all, 49 patients received axitinib 5 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) with paclitaxel/carboplatin or gemcitabine/cisplatin in 3-week cycles. Following determination of the maximum tolerated dose, a squamous cell NSCLC expansion cohort was enroled and received axitinib 5 mg b.i.d. with paclitaxel/carboplatin.Results:Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities: febrile neutropenia (n=1) in the paclitaxel/carboplatin cohort and fatigue (n=1) in the gemcitabine/cisplatin cohort. Common nonhaematologic treatment-related adverse events were hypertension (36.7%), diarrhoea (34.7%) and fatigue (28.6%). No grade3 haemoptysis occurred among 12 patients with squamous cell NSCLC. The objective response rate was 37.0% for patients receiving axitinib/paclitaxel/carboplatin (n=27) and 23.8% for patients receiving axitinib/gemcitabine/cisplatin (n=21). Pharmacokinetics of axitinib and chemotherapeutic agents were similar when administered alone or in combination.Conclusion:Axitinib 5 mg b.i.d. may be combined with standard paclitaxel/carboplatin or gemcitabine/cisplatin regimens without evidence of overt drug-drug interactions. Both combinations demonstrated clinical efficacy and were well tolerated.British Journal of Cancer 09/2012; 107(8):1277-85. DOI:10.1038/bjc.2012.406 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sorafenib is an oral angiogenetic multikinase inhibitor approved in the treatment of renal and hepatocellular carcinoma. Bleeding and venous thrombotic events have been described with angiogenetic agents but cerebrovascular accidents are rarely reported. We report two cases of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who developed a cerebrovascular accident while on sorafenib. Neither patient had any risk factors for the cerebrovascular events apart from gender and age in the second patient. Laboratory data were noncontributory. The head CT scan did not reveal acute abnormalities. No hemodynamically significant stenosis was visible in the carotid ultrasound, and the echocardiogram showed normal size of the heart chambers and normal systolic function of the left ventricle. Sorafenib was discontinued in both cases. Physicians should monitor patients receiving sorafenib for neurologic symptoms, and in the absence of other etiology, prompt discontinuation of this drug should be considered.Gastroenterology Research and Practice 05/2011; 2011(1687-6121):616080. DOI:10.1155/2011/616080 · 1.50 Impact Factor