Risk of Hepatitis-Related Mortality Increased Among Hepatitis C Virus/HIV-Coinfected Drug Users Compared With Drug Users Infected Only With Hepatitis C Virus
Progression of liver-related disease is accelerated in individuals coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Because the life expectancy of HIV-infected drug users (DUs) improved after the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HCV-related death is likely to become more important. To disentangle the effects of HCV and HIV, we compared the overall and cause-specific mortality between HCV/HIV-infected DUs and HCV-infected DUs and DUs without HCV or HIV, followed up between 1985 and 2006.
A total of 1295 participants in the Amsterdam Cohort Study were included. Cause-specific hazard ratios (CHRs) were estimated for the eras before (<1997) and since HAART (> or =1997) within and among serologic groups.
The risk of dying decreased for most causes of death > or =1997; this decrease was not the same for the different serologic groups. Among HCV/HIV-coinfected DUs, the risk of hepatitis/liver-related death did not substantially change over time (CHR = 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21 to 3.58), whereas the risk of AIDS-related mortality decreased. Compared with DUs solely infected with HCV, HCV/HIV-coinfected DUs were at increased risk of dying from hepatitis/liver-related disease (CHR = 7.15, 95% CI: 1.98 to 25.8), other natural causes (CHR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.41 to 6.79), and nonnatural causes (CHR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.07 to 4.95) in the HAART era.
HCV/HIV-coinfected DUs remain at increased risk of dying from hepatitis/liver-related death in the HAART era compared with HCV-monoinfected DUs. This risk did not change in HCV/HIV-coinfected DUs after HAART was introduced, suggesting that in the HAART era, HIV continues to accelerate HCV disease progression. Efforts should be made to establish effective treatment for HCV infection in HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "However, despite the positive impact of ART, as shown by some studies, some studies do not show any benefit of ART.41,42 Increased risk of hepatitis/liver-related deaths were seen in a 20-year prospective study despite the use of ART among co-infected drug users (DUs) compared to HCV mono-infected DUs, providing further evidence that HIV accelerates liver disease.43 "
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ABSTRACT: Around 33 million people worldwide are living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, and approximately 20-30% of HIV-infected individuals are also infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV). The main form of HCV transmission is via the blood borne route; high rates of co-infection are found in intravenous drug users with HCV prevalence rates as high as 90%. Introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant decline in HIV-related morbidity, but at the same time the incidence of HCV related liver disease is increasing in the co-infected population. Meta analysis has revealed that individuals who are co-infected with HIV/HCV harbor three times greater risk of progression to liver disease than those infected with HCV alone. Increased risk of progression to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related deaths is shown among the co-infected patients by some studies, suggesting that HCV infection may accelerate the clinical course of HIV infection. HCV may also affect the incidence of liver toxicity associated with ART, affecting the management of HIV infection. There is a lack of optimal therapeutic approaches to treat HCV infection in HIV co-infected patients. This review discusses recent literature pertaining HIV/HCV co-infection, in addition to providing a snapshot of impact of co-infection on human genome at the level of gene expression and its regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs).
Infectious disease reports 06/2013; 5(Suppl 1):e7. DOI:10.4081/idr.2013.s1.e7
Available from: Francesco Castelli
- "Paradoxically, the longer life-expectancy offered to HIV-infected patients by HAART permits slow-acting HCV-related liver injury to emerge as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Furthermore, the progression rate to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease is accelerated in HIV co-infected patients: they have a twofold increased rate of cirrhosis compared to HCV mono-infected individuals , particularly when HIV associated immune-depression progresses. "
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV), first recognized as a cause of transfusion-associated acute and chronic hepatitis in 1989, plays a major role as a cause of chronic liver injury, with potential for neoplastic degeneration. It is mainly transmitted by the parenteral route. However, although with lower efficiency, it may be also transmitted by sexual intercourses and by the mother-to-child route. Epidemiological evidence shows that a wave of infection occurred in the 1945-65 period (baby boomers) in western countries. After acute infection, as many as 50-85% of the patients fail to clear the virus resulting in chronic liver infection and/or disease. It is estimated that, on a global scale, about 170 million people are chronically infected with HCV, leading to about 350.000 deaths yearly. Among western countries southern Europe, and particularly Italy, is among the most affected areas. The impact on the public health systems is noteworthy, with high number of hospitalizations due to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. While waiting for a safe and effective vaccine to be made available, new promising direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs offer a better therapeutic scenario than in the past even for the poor responder genotypes 1 and 4, provided that effective screening and care is offered. However, the long and aspecific prodromic period before clinical symptoms develop is a major obstacle to early detection and treatment. Effective screening strategies may target at-risk groups or age specific groups, as recently recommended by the CDC.
BMC Infectious Diseases 11/2012; 12 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S2. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-12-S2-S2 · 2.61 Impact Factor
Available from: Liang-Jen Wang
- "In Taiwan, previous studies have reported that over 90% HIV-infected IDUs also tested positive for HCV (Chu, Chiang, Su, Chang, & Cheng, 2009; Lee et al., 2011). HIV and HCV likely account for the highest morbidity and mortality of infectious disease among IDUs (Smit et al., 2008). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is commonly passed through vertical (mother-to-infant) transmission, sexual activity, or injected drug use (Te & Jensen, 2010). "
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ABSTRACT: A total of 125 heroin users were recruited from a detention center and two psychiatric hospitals in northern Taiwan during 2006 in order to investigate the prevalence and correlates of blood-borne infections among heroin users. The seroprevalence rates of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), HBV, HDV, and syphilis were 15.2%, 74.4%, 15.2%, 6.4%, and 8%, respectively. Injection risk behaviors were associated with HIV, HCV, and syphilis infections, but not with HBV infections. Meanwhile, HCV and HBV infections were correlated with the duration of heroin use and age of the subjects, respectively. The results of this study suggest that a comprehensive public health program is needed to prevent transmission of these blood-borne infections. The study's limitations are noted.
Substance Use & Misuse 10/2012; 48(1-2). DOI:10.3109/10826084.2012.731131 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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