Delayed cardioprotection afforded by the glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitor SB-216763 occurs via a K-ATP- and MPTP-dependent mechanism at reperfusion
ABSTRACT Previous studies in our laboratory suggest that an acute inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) by SB-216763 (SB21) is cardioprotective when administered just before reperfusion. However, it is unknown whether the GSK inhibitor SB21 administered 24 h before ischemia is cardioprotective and whether the mechanism involves ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered the GSK inhibitor SB21 (0.6 mg/kg) or vehicle 24 h before ischemia. Subsequently, the rats were acutely anesthetized with Inactin and underwent 30 min of ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion followed by infarct size determination. Subsets of rats received either the sarcolemmal K(ATP) channel blocker HMR-1098 (6 mg/kg), the mitochondrial K(ATP) channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (5-HD; 10 mg/kg), or the MPTP opener atractyloside (5 mg/kg) either 5 min before SB21 administration or 5 min before reperfusion 24 h later. The infarct size was reduced in SB21 compared with vehicle (44 +/- 2% vs. 61 +/- 2%, respectively; P < 0.01). 5-HD administered either before SB21 treatment or 5 min before reperfusion the following day abrogated SB21-induced protection (54 +/- 4% and 61 +/- 2%, respectively). HMR-1098 did not affect the SB21-induced infarct size reduction when administered before the SB21 treatment (43 +/- 1%); however, HMR-1098 partially abrogated the SB21-induced infarct size reduction when administered just before reperfusion 24 h later (52 +/- 1%). The MPTP opening either before SB21 administration or 5 min before reperfusion abrogated the infarct size reduction produced by SB21 (61 +/- 2% and 62 +/- 2%, respectively). Hence, GSK inhibition reduces infarct size when given 24 h before the administration via the opening K(ATP) channels and MPTP closure.
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ABSTRACT: Since their inaugural discovery in the early 1960s, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to mediate multiple physiological and pathological processes. In addition to their canonical function in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, research in the last decade has highlighted new MMP functions, including proteolysis of novel substrates beyond ECM proteins, MMP localization to subcellular organelles, and proteolysis of susceptible intracellular proteins in those subcellular compartments. This review will provide a comparison of the extracellular and intracellular roles of MMPs, illustrating that MMPs are far more interesting than the one-dimensional view originally taken. We focus on the roles of MMP-2 in cardiac injury and repair, as this is one of the most studied MMPs in the cardiovascular field. We will highlight how understanding all dimensions, such as localization of activity and timing of interventions, will increase the translational potential of research findings. Building upon old ideas and turning them inside out and upside down will help us to better understand how to move the MMP field forward.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 09/2014; 77. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2014.09.016 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is well established that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β in the young adult myocardium protects against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury through inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. Here, we investigated age-associated differences in the ability of GSK-3β inhibitor [SB-216763 (SB)] to protect the heart and to modulate mPTP opening during I/R injury. Fischer 344 male rats were assigned from their respective young or old age groups. Animals were subjected to 30 min ischemia following 120 min reperfusion to determine myocardial infarction (MI) size in vivo. Ischemic tissues were collected 10 min after reperfusion for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) measurements and immunoblotting. In parallel experiments, ventricular myocytes isolated from young or old rats were exposed to oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mPTP opening times were measured by using confocal microscopy. Our results showed that SB decreased MI in young SB-treated rats compared with young untreated I/R animals, whereas SB failed to significantly affect MI in the old animals. SB also significantly increased GSK-3β phosphorylation in young rats, but phosphorylation levels were already highly elevated in old control groups. There were no significant differences observed between SB-treated and untreated old animals. NAD(+) levels were better maintained in young SB-treated animals compared with the young untreated group during I/R, but this relative improvement was not observed in old animals. SB also significantly prolonged the time to mPTP opening induced by ROS in young cardiomyocytes, but not in aged cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate that this GSK-3β inhibitor fails to protect the aged myocardium in response to I/R injury or prevent mPTP opening following a rise in ROS and suggest that healthy aging alters mPTP regulation by GSK-3β.AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 03/2011; 300(3):H922-30. DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00860.2010 · 4.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are critical modulators of cell function and are increasingly recognized as proximal sensors and effectors that ultimately determine the balance between cell survival and cell death. Volatile anesthetics (VA) are long known for their cardioprotective effects, as demonstrated by improved mitochondrial and cellular functions, and by reduced necrotic and apoptotic cell death during cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury. The molecular mechanisms by which VA impart cardioprotection are still poorly understood. Because of the emerging role of mitochondria as therapeutic targets in diseases, including ischemic heart disease, it is important to know if VA-induced cytoprotective mechanisms are mediated at the mitochondrial level. In recent years, considerable evidence points to direct effects of VA on mitochondrial channel/transporter protein functions and electron transport chain (ETC) complexes as potential targets in mediating cardioprotection. This review furnishes an integrated overview of targets that VA impart on mitochondrial channels/transporters and ETC proteins that could provide a basis for cation regulation and homeostasis, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) emission in redox signaling for cardiac cell protection during IR injury.Frontiers in Physiology 09/2014; 5:341. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00341