Direct administration of insulin into skeletal muscle reveals that the transport of insulin across the capillary endothelium limits the time course of insulin to activate glucose disposal
ABSTRACT Intravenous insulin infusion rapidly increases plasma insulin, yet glucose disposal occurs at a much slower rate. This delay in insulin's action may be related to the protracted time for insulin to traverse the capillary endothelium. An increased delay may be associated with the development of insulin resistance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether bypassing the transendothelial insulin transport step and injecting insulin directly into the interstitial space would moderate the delay in glucose uptake observed with intravenous administration of the hormone.
Intramuscular injections of saline (n = 3) or insulin (n = 10) were administered directly into the vastus medialis of anesthetized dogs. Injections of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, and 3.0 units insulin were administered hourly during a basal insulin euglycemic glucose clamp (0.2mU x min(-1) x kg(-1)).
Unlike the saline group, each incremental insulin injection caused interstitial (lymph) insulin to rise within 10 min, indicating rapid diffusion of the hormone within the interstitial matrix. Delay in insulin action was virtually eliminated, indicated by immediate dose-dependent increments in hindlimb glucose uptake. Additionally, bypassing insulin transport by direct injection into muscle revealed a fourfold greater sensitivity to insulin of in vivo muscle tissue than previously reported from intravenous insulin administration.
Our results indicate that the transport of insulin to skeletal muscle is a rate-limiting step for insulin to activate glucose disposal. Based on these results, we speculate that defects in insulin transport across the endothelial layer of skeletal muscle will contribute to insulin resistance.
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ABSTRACT: Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist Prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague Dawley rats (n=33) while 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-week Prazosin treatment, which ensured that Prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-Glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole-body insulin sensitivity increased by ~24% and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-Glucose disposal increased by ~30% concomitant with a ~20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake was enhanced independent of improvements in skeletal muscle insulin signaling to glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suggesting that the improvement in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake could be due to improved diffusion conditions for glucose in the muscle. The Prazosin treatment did not affect the rats on any other parameters measured. We conclude that an increase in skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data point towards the importance of increasing skeletal muscle capillarization for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes.AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 10/2014; 307(12):ajpendo.00020.2014. DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00020.2014 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insulin injected directly into skeletal muscle diffuses rapidly through the interstitial space to cause glucose uptake, but this is blocked in insulin resistance. As glucotoxicity is associated with endothelial dysfunction, the observed hyperglycemia in diet-induced obese dogs may inhibit insulin access to muscle cells, and exacerbate insulin resistance. Here we asked whether interstitial insulin diffusion is reduced in modest hyperglycemia, similar to that induced by a high fat diet.Methods During normoglycemic (100 mg/dl) and moderately hyperglycemic (120 mg/dl) clamps in anesthetized canines, sequential doses of insulin were injected into the vastus medialis of one hindlimb; the contra-lateral limb served as a control. Plasma samples were collected and analyzed for insulin content. Lymph vessels of the hind leg were also catheterized, and lymph samples were analyzed as an indicator of interstitial insulin concentration.ResultsInsulin injection increased lymph insulin in normoglycemic animals, but not in hyperglycemic animals. Muscle glucose uptake was elevated in response to hyperglycemia, however the insulin-mediated glucose uptake in normoglycemic controls was not observed in hyperglycemia. Modest hyperglycemia prevented intra-muscularly injected insulin from diffusing through the interstitial space reduced insulin-mediated glucose uptake.Conclusion Hyperglycemia prevents the appearance of injected insulin in the interstitial space, thus reducing insulin action on skeletal muscle cells.Metabolism 11/2014; 64(2). DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2014.10.036 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transport of insulin across the microvasculature is necessary to reach its target organs (e.g. adipose and muscle tissues) and is rate-limiting in insulin action. Morphological evidence suggests that insulin enters endothelial cells of the microvasculature and studies with large vessel-derived endothelial cells show insulin uptake; however, little is known about the actual transcytosis of insulin and how this occurs in the relevant microvascular endothelial cells. We report an approach to study insulin transcytosis across individual, primary human adipose microvascular endothelial cells (HAMECs), involving insulin uptake followed by vesicle-mediated exocytosis visualized by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. In this setting, fluorophore-conjugated insulin exocytosis depended on its initial binding and uptake, which was saturable and much greater than in muscle cells. Unlike its degradation within muscle cells, insulin was stable within HAMEC and escaped lysosomal colocalization. Insulin transcytosis required dynamin but was unaffected by caveolin-1 knockdown or cholesterol depletion. Instead, insulin transcytosis was significantly inhibited by the clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor Pitstop 2 or siRNA-mediated clathrin-depletion. Accordingly, insulin internalized for 1 min in HAMECs colocalized with clathrin far more than with caveolin-1. This study constitutes the first evidence of vesicle-mediated insulin transcytosis and highlights that its initial uptake is clathrin-dependent and caveolae-independent.