Metabolomic profiling to develop blood biomarkers for Parkinson's disease
ABSTRACT The development of biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring disease progression in Parkinson's disease (PD) is of great importance since diagnosis based on clinical parameters has a considerable error rate. In this study, we utilized metabolomic profiling using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical coulometric array detection (LCECA) to look for biomarkers in plasma useful for the diagnosis of PD. We examined 25 controls and 66 PD patients. We also measured 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels as a marker of oxidative damage to DNA. We initially examined the profiles of unmedicated PD subjects compared to controls to rule out confounding effects of symptomatic medications. We found a complete separation of the two groups. We then determined the variables, which played the greatest role in separating the two groups and applied them to PD subjects taking dopaminergic medications. Using these parameters, we achieved a complete separation of the PD patients from controls. 8-OHdG levels were significantly increased in PD patients, but overlapped controls. Two other markers of oxidative damage were measured in our LCECA profiles. Uric acid was significantly reduced while glutathione was significantly increased in PD patients. These findings show that metabolomic profiling with LCECA coulometric array has great promise for developing biomarkers for both the diagnosis, as well as monitoring disease progression in PD.
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic (DA) neuron depletion. Early detection of PD may help in selecting the appropriate treatment. Biomarkers of PD have been suggested, however none of these is currently in clinical use. The aim of this study was to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as early biomarkers of PD. Our hypothesis was that during PD progression, specific VOCs are generated that are linked to the biochemical pathways characterizing PD. These VOCs can be detected by GC–MS combined with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique. Three groups of rats were studied: DA-lesioned rats injected with 6-hydroxydopamine (HDA; 250 μg/rat n=11); control rats injected with saline (n=9), and control rats injected with DSP-4 (n=8), a specific noradrenergic neuron toxin. Blood and striatal tissue homogenate were analyzed. In the blood, 1-octen-3-ol and 2-ethylhexanol were found at significantly higher concentrations in HDA versus sham rats. In the striatal homogenate 1-octen-3-ol and other four compounds were found at significantly lower concentrations in HDA versus sham rats. 1-Octen-3-ol is a cytotoxic compound. These results may lead to the development of an early diagnostic test for PD based on profiling of VOCs in body fluids.Neurochemistry International 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2014.06.016 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Behavioral sensitization has been widely studied in animal models and is theorized to reflect neural modifications associated with human psychostimulant addiction. While the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is known to play a role, the neurochemical mechanisms underlying behavioral sensitization remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we conducted the first metabolomics analysis to globally characterize neurochemical differences associated with behavioral sensitization. Methamphetamine-induced sensitization measures were generated by statistically modeling longitudinal activity data for eight inbred strains of mice. Subsequent to behavioral testing, nontargeted liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling was performed on 48 brain samples, yielding 301 metabolite levels per sample after quality control. Association testing between metabolite levels and three primary dimensions of behavioral sensitization (total distance, stereotypy and margin time) showed four robust, significant associations at a stringent metabolome-wide significance threshold (false discovery rate < 0.05). Results implicated homocarnosine, a dipeptide of GABA and histidine, in total distance sensitization, GABA metabolite 4-guanidinobutanoate and pantothenate in stereotypy sensitization, and myo-inositol in margin time sensitization. Secondary analyses indicated that these associations were independent of concurrent methamphetamine levels and, with the exception of the myo-inositol association, suggest a mechanism whereby strain-based genetic variation produces specific baseline neurochemical differences that substantially influence the magnitude of MA-induced sensitization. These findings demonstrate the utility of mouse metabolomics for identifying novel biomarkers, and developing more comprehensive neurochemical models, of psychostimulant sensitization.Genes Brain and Behavior 09/2013; DOI:10.1111/gbb.12081 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Parkinsonian disorders are a large group of neurodegenerative diseases including idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical Parkinsonian disorders (APD), such as multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The etiology of these disorders is not known although it is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. One of the greatest obstacles for developing efficacious disease-modifying treatment strategies is the lack of biomarkers. Reliable biomarkers are needed for early and accurate diagnosis, to measure disease progression, and response to therapy. In this review several of the most promising cerebrospinal biomarker candidates are discussed. Alpha-synuclein seems to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies and its levels can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid and in plasma. In a similar way, tau protein accumulation seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. Urate, a potent antioxidant, seems to be associated to the risk of developing PD and with its progression. Neurofilament light chain levels are increased in APD compared with PD and healthy controls. The new "omics" techniques are potent tools offering new insights in the patho-etiology of these disorders. Some of the difficulties encountered in developing biomarkers are discussed together with future perspectives.Frontiers in Neurology 01/2012; 3:187. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2012.00187