Nuclear respiratory factor 1 controls myocyte enhancer factor 2A transcription to provide a mechanism for coordinate expression of respiratory chain subunits.
ABSTRACT Nuclear respiratory factors NRF1 and NRF2 regulate the expression of nuclear genes encoding heme biosynthetic enzymes, proteins required for mitochondrial genome transcription and protein import, and numerous respiratory chain subunits. NRFs thereby coordinate the expression of nuclear and mitochondrial genes relevant to mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Only two of the nuclear-encoded respiratory chain subunits have evolutionarily conserved tissue-specific forms: the cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunits VIa and VIIa heart/muscle (H) and ubiquitous (L) isoforms. We used genome comparisons to conclude that the promoter regions of COX6A(H) and COX7A(H) lack NRF sites but have conserved myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) elements. We show that MEF2A mRNA is induced with forced expression of NRF1 and that the MEF2A 5'-regulatory region contains an evolutionarily conserved canonical element that binds endogenous NRF1 in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. NRF1 regulates MEF2A promoter-reporters according to overexpression, RNA interference underexpression, and promoter element mutation studies. As there are four mammalian MEF2 isotypes, we used an isoform-specific antibody in ChIP to confirm MEF2A binding to the COX6A(H) promoter. These findings support a role for MEF2A as an intermediary in coordinating respiratory chain subunit expression in heart and muscle through a NRF1 --> MEF2A --> COX(H) transcriptional cascade. MEF2A also bound the MEF2A and PPARGC1A promoters in ChIP, placing it within a feedback loop with PGC1alpha in controlling NRF1 activity. Interruption of this cascade and loop may account for striated muscle mitochondrial defects in mef2a null mice. Our findings also account for the previously described indirect regulation by NRF1 of other MEF2 targets in muscle such as GLUT4.
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ABSTRACT: Cancer cell metabolism differs from that of non-transformed cells in the same tissue. This specific metabolism gives tumor cells growing advantages besides the effect in increasing anabolism. One of these advantages is immune evasion mediated by a lower expression of the mayor histocompatibility complex class I molecules. The extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 regulates both mayor histocompatibility complex class I expression and metabolic activity. However, the mechanisms underlying are largely unknown. We show here that extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 regulates the transcription of the NADH(+)-dependent histone deacetylase silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirtuin 1) in leukemic Jurkat T cells. This involves the activation of the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor-2 and its binding to the sirt1 promoter. In addition, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 is required for T cell receptor-induced and oxidative stress-induced full Sirtuin 1 expression. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 induces the expression of promoters containing the antioxidant response elements through a Sirtuin 1-dependent pathway. On the other hand, down modulation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 expression impairs the anti-oxidant response. Notably, the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 inhibitor BIX02189 induces apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia tumor cells without affecting T cells from healthy donors. Our results unveil a new pathway that modulates metabolism in tumor cells. This pathway represents a promising therapeutic target in cancers with deep metabolic layouts such as acute myeloid leukemia.The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology. 05/2014;
- Chem. Biol. Lett. 07/2014; 1(2):66-76..
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ABSTRACT: Baicalein, a major component of Scutellaria Baicalensis Georgi (Huang Qin), is widely used in the traditional Chinese medicine. However, the mechanisms underlying cancer chemoprevention are still not clear. The present study aimed to clarify how baicalein modulate Nrf2/Keap1 system to exert its cytoprotection and cancer chemoprevention. In the upstream cellular signaling, baicalein stimulated the phosphorylation of MEK1/2, AKT and JNK1/2, which were demonstrated to be essential for baicalein-induced Nrf2 expression by their inhibitors. Immunoprecipitation with Nrf2 found that baicalein increased the amount of phosphorylated MEK1/2, AKT and JNK1/2 bound to Nrf2, and also stabilized Nrf2 protein by inhibiting the ubiquitination and proteasomal turnover of Nrf2. Simultaneously, baicalein down-regulated Keap1 by stimulating modification and degradation of Keap1 without affecting the dissociation of Keap1-Nrf2. Silencing Nrf2 using Nrf2 siRNA markedly reduced the ARE activity under both baseline and baicalein-induced conditions. Thus, baicalein positively modulate Nrf2/Keap1 system through both Keap1-independent and -dependent pathways. These finding provide an insight to understand the mechanisms of baicalein in cytoprotection and cancer chemoprevention.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 04/2014; · 3.37 Impact Factor