Relationships between nasalance scores and nasopharyngeal shapes in cleft palate patients.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to clarify the relationship between nasalance scores and nasopharyngeal shapes obtained by lateral cephalograms.
Eight patients who underwent a Wardill-Kilner push-back palatoplasty were included in this study. Perceptual judgment by a speech pathologist indicated that these patients had no hypernasality and no nasal emission at blowing. As normal controls, 33 non-cleft individuals, 4 boys and 10 girls aged 6 years old and 5 boys and 14 girls aged 7 years old, were investigated.
Lateral cephalograms at rest were taken for both groups. For the cleft (palate) patients, lateral cephalograms at phonation /a/ and blowing were analyzed and nasometries were also performed using a kitsutsuki passage.
There was no significant difference in the velar length, the pharyngeal depth, the ratio of the velar length to the pharyngeal depth and the velar angle between the cleft patients and the non-cleft individuals. Multiple regression analyses indicated that standardized regression coefficients of ratios for the velar length to the pharyngeal depth and the velar ascent at blowing had higher nasalance scores for sentences 1 and 3, which had high coefficients of determination, respectively.
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ABSTRACT: A new integrated videoendoscopic/photodetection system, including an endoscope with an internal instrument channel used for photodetection, was applied to the evaluation of velopharyngeal closure in a subject with marginal velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) and in a subject with no speech disorder. Acoustic and aerodynamic speech assessments were used to establish the severity of velopharyngeal impairment in the marginal VPI patient. A light-out condition was used to establish the photodetector criterion for closure. The new system was effective for providing detailed phonetic assessment of velopharyngeal closure. Variations in degree of closure during select oral and nasal consonant productions were identified in the VPI subject but not in the normal speaking subject. The data show that important details of velopharyngeal insufficiency can be identified using the integrated endoscopic/photodetection system.The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 06/1993; 30(3):337-42. DOI:10.1597/1545-1569(1993)030<0337:IEPEOV>2.3.CO;2 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many cleft palate teams currently schedule palatoplasty and veloplasty within the child's first year of life. At Hannover Medical School, palatoplasty and veloplasty are performed at approximately 18-24 months of age. It was questioned which speech and language outcome was achieved and whether it may be influenced by: (1) type and extent of the clefts; (2) velopharyngeal inadequacy; and (3) hearing disorders. A retrospective evaluation of data collected from 1985 to 1993 was performed summarizing receptive and expressive speech and language skills of 370 children aged 4.5 years. Cleft types were unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP, 30.0%), bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP, 28.7%), cleft hard and soft palate (CP, 21.6%), cleft soft palate (cleft velum, CV, 10.8%), cleft lip and alveolus (CLA, 5.8%) and submucous clefts (SUB, 3.2%). n = 86 had constant normal hearing, and n = 284 had conductive hearing loss > 20 dB (500-4000 Hz). Severe developmental phonology errors were found in 30-50% of children with repaired cleft palate and in less than 8% of patients with CLA and SUB. Posterior compensatory misarticulation was below 15% in the groups UCLP, BCLP, CP, CV and SUB. Nasal resonance and air emission was nearly normal in CLA, but was increased in 27% to 38% of the other cleft types. Children with conductive hearing loss had significantly more and severely affected phonology, morphology, syntax, vocabulary, language comprehension, and auditory perception than normal hearing children. Findings indicated that speech and language function in CLP patients were predominantly related to the hearing status.International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 11/1999; 50(3):205-17. DOI:10.1016/S0165-5876(99)00243-8 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to obtain normative nasalance scores for adult subjects speaking the Flemish language. Additional objectives of the study were to determine if speaker sex played a role in differences in nasalance scores and if significantly different nasalance scores existed for Flemish compared with other languages or dialects. Nasalance scores were obtained while young Flemish adults read three standard nasalance passages. These passages were an oronasal passage (a text that contained the same approximate percentage of nasal consonants as found in the standard Dutch speech), an oral passage (a text that excluded nasal consonants), and a nasal passage (a reading text loaded with nasal consonants). Subjects included 58 healthy young Flemish adults with normal oral and velopharyngeal structure and function, normal hearing levels, normal voice characteristics, and normal resonance and articulation skills. The Nasometer (model 6200) was used to obtain nasalance scores for the three reading passages. These three reading passages were designed specifically for use with the nasometer. The nasalance data were analyzed for sex dependence, using Student's t test for each reading passage. This same test was used for comparison of our data with data of other languages. Normative nasalance data were obtained for the oronasal text (33.8%), the oral text (10.9%), and the nasal text (55.8%). Female speakers exhibited significantly higher nasalance scores than male speakers on the passages containing nasal consonants (normal text, p = .001; nasal text, p = .042). Furthermore, statistically significant cross-linguistic nasality differences were observed. The English and Spanish languages were found to have more nasalance than the Flemish language. For the North Dutch and Flemish languages, this cross-linguistic phenomenon was absent. These normative nasalance scores for normal young adults speaking the Flemish language provide important reference information for Flemish cleft palate teams. Sex-related differences and cross-linguistic differences were shown.The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 04/2001; 38(2):112-8. DOI:10.1597/1545-1569(2001)038<0112:NVFNNR>2.0.CO;2 · 1.24 Impact Factor