Mesenchymal stem cell tissue engineering: Techniques for isolation, expansion and application
ABSTRACT Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are undifferentiated multipotent cells which reside in various human tissues and have the potential to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, fibroblasts and other tissues of mesenchymal origin. In the human body they could be regarded as readily available reservoirs of reparative cells capable to mobilize, proliferate and differentiate to the appropriate cell type in response to certain signals. These properties have triggered a variety of MSC-based therapies for pathologies including nonunions, osteogenesis imperfecta, cartilage damage and myocardial infarction. The outcome of these approaches is influenced by the methodologies and materials used during the cycle from the isolation of MSCs to their re-implantation. This review article focuses on the pathways that are followed from the isolation of MSCs, expansion and implantation.
- SourceAvailable from: Intissar Waheed
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Non-union of long bones is a significant consequence of fracture treatment. The ideal classification for non-union of long bones would give sufficient significant information to the orthopaedic surgeon to enable good management of the treatment required and to facilitate the creation of comparable study groups for research purposes. The Non-Union Scoring System (NUSS) is a new scoring system to assist surgeons in the choice of the correct treatment in non-union surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the evidence supporting the use of the NUSS classification in the treatment of non-unions of long bones and to validate the treatment algorithm suggested by this scoring system. A total of 300 patients with non-union of the long bones were included in the clinical study. A radiographic and clinical healing was reached in 60 of 69 non-unions (86%) in group 1 (0-25 points), in 102 of 117 non-unions (87%) in group 2 (26-50 points), and in 69 of 84 (82%) in group 3 (51-75 points). The mean time to clinical healing was 7.17±1.85 months in group 1, 7.30±1.72 months in group 2 and 7.60±1.49 months in group 3. The mean time to radiographic healing was 8.78±2.04 months in group 1, 9.02±1.84 months in group 2 and 9.53±1.40 months in group 3. There are few articles in the scientific literature that examine the classification systems for non-union. A statistical analysis of the first results we have obtained with the use of NUSS showed significant rates of union in all the evaluated groups. This indicates that NUSS could be an appropriate scoring system to classify and stratify non-unions and to enable the surgeon to choose the correct treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Injury 10/2014; 45. DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2014.10.030 · 2.46 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Clinical management of non-union of long bone fractures and segmental bone defect is a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. The use of autologous bone graft (ABG) is always considered the gold standard treatment. Traditional techniques for harvesting ABG from iliac crest usually involve several complications, particularly at the donor site. The Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator (RIA) is an intramedullary reaming system that generates a large volume of cancellous bone material in a single-step reaming process; this bone material can be collected and potentially used as an ABG source. Our interest is to compare the complications associated with the standard technique of harvesting from iliac crest with those of the innovative RIA harvesting device. A database of 70 patients with long bone non-unions was studied. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical harvesting technique used: RIA system ABG (35 patients) and iliac crest ABG (35 patients). At the 12-month follow-up, pain at the donor site was reported in no patients in the RIA system ABG group and five of 35 patients (14.28%) in the iliac crest ABG group. Local infections at the donor site were found in no patients in the RIA system ABG group compared with five patients (14.28%) in the iliac crest ABG group. There were no fractures in the RIA system ABG group and one case (2.85%) of anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) dislocation in the iliac crest ABG group. No systemic infections were detected in either group. We analysed the scientific literature on the use of RIA technique to collect ABG for use in patients with anthropic-oligotrophic non-unions, with a focus on the complications associated with this technique. RIA bone graft for the treatment of non-unions and segmental bone defect of long bones seems to be a safe and efficient procedure with low donor site morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Injury 10/2014; 45. DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2014.10.034 · 2.46 Impact Factor