Molecular cloning of ecdysone 20-hydroxylase and expression pattern of the enzyme during embryonic development of silkworm Bombyx mori.
ABSTRACT In various insects, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is indispensable for embryonic development. In eggs of the silkworm Bombyx mori, 20E has been demonstrated to be produced by two metabolic pathways: de novo synthesis from cholesterol and dephosphorylation of ovary-derived physiologically inactive ecdysteroid phosphates. In the former, ecdysone 20-hydroxylase (E20OHase) has been suggested to be a key enzyme. In the latter, it has been demonstrated that the dephosphorylation of ecdysteroid phosphates is catalyzed by a specific enzyme, ecdysteroid-phosphate phosphatase (EPPase). In this study, a cDNA encoding E20OHase was cloned from 3-day-old nondiapause eggs of B. mori and sequenced using PCR techniques. The protein exhibited the signature sequences characteristic of P450 enzymes, and mediated the conversion of ecdysone to 20E using the baculovirus expression system. Semi-quantitative analysis revealed that the E20OHase mRNA is expressed predominantly during gastrulation and organogenesis in nondiapause eggs, but is scarcely detected in diapause eggs whose development is arrested at the late gastrula stage. The developmental changes in the expression patterns of E20OHase and EPPase suggest that both enzyme activities are regulated at the transcription level, and both enzymes contribute cooperatively to 20E formation during embryonic development.
Article: Synthesis and phosphorylation of ecdysteroids during ovarian development in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, it has been demonstrated that most free ecdysteroids in the ovary are converted to physiologically inactive ecdysteroid 22-phosphates, which are then transformed back to free ecdysteroids during early embryonic development. Two specific enzymes involved in the reciprocal conversion of ecdysteroids, namely, ecdysteroid 22-kinase (EcKinase) and ecdysteroid-phosphate phosphatase, have been isolated and characterized. In this study, we first attempted a phylogenetic analysis of EcKinase. The resulting phylogenetic tree showed that many proteins homologous to B. mori EcKinase are found not only in ecdysozoa, including insects and nematodes, but also in teleosts, fungi, and bacteria. We then investigated the sites where free ecdysteroids are synthesized and phosphorylated in the ovary. We found that (1) the mRNAs of two P450 enzymes involved in ecdysteroidogenesis, CYP306a1 (25-hydroxylase) and CYP314a1 (20-hydroxylase), are expressed mainly in follicle cells, (2) EcKinase mRNA localizes in the oocyte and nurse cells, and (3) EcKinase immunoreactivity localizes mainly in the external region of the oocyte, not in nurse cells or follicle cells. From these results, we suggest that ecdysteroids in the B. mori ovary are synthesized in follicle cells and transferred into the oocyte, where they are phosphorylated by EcKinase, whose mRNA originates from nurse cells and the oocyte itself.ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 08/2008; 25(7):721-7. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Molecular genetic studies of Bombyx mori have led to profound advances in our understanding of the regulation of development. Bombyx mori brain, as a main endocrine organ, plays important regulatory roles in various biological processes. Microarray technology will allow the genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns in silkworm brains. We reported microarray-based gene expression profiles in silkworm brains at four stages including V7, P1, P3 and P5. A total of 4,550 genes were transcribed in at least one selected stage. Of these, clustering algorithms separated the expressed genes into stably expressed genes and variably expressed genes. The results of the gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis of stably expressed genes showed that the ribosomal and oxidative phosphorylation pathways were principal pathways. Secondly, four clusters of genes with significantly different expression patterns were observed in the 1,175 variably expressed genes. Thirdly, thirty-two neuropeptide genes, six neuropeptide-like precursor genes, and 117 cuticular protein genes were expressed in selected developmental stages. Major characteristics of the transcriptional profiles in the brains of Bombyx mori at specific development stages were present in this study. Our data provided useful information for future research.BMC Neuroscience 01/2011; 12:8. · 3.04 Impact Factor
Article: Identification and expression profile of Halloween genes involved in ecdysteroid biosynthesis in Spodoptera littoralis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: 20-Hydroxyecdyone (20E), an active form of ecdysteroid, is the key hormone in insect growth and development. The biosynthesis of ecdysteroid is triggered and under the control of the neuropeptide, prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). To date, five cytochrome P450 enzymes, namely Spook (Spo), Phantom (Phm), Disembodied (Dib), Shadow (Sad) and Shade (Shd) related to ecdysteroid biosynthesis, are identified and the character of last four enzymes is well studied in Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori and Manduca sexta. These genes are called Halloween genes and mediate the biosynthesis of 20E from cholesterol. In this study, we extended these works to a major pest insect in agriculture, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We identified the sequence of five Halloween genes, and the converted amino acid sequences were compared with those of other insects. The phylogenetic analysis clearly showed separated clusters of each gene and the evolutional conservation in insects with a high similarity in Lepidoptera. Spo, phm, dib and sad were predominantly expressed in prothoracic glands, and shd was expressed in fat body and Malpighian tubules at the last instar larvae. Spo expression was kept high level between day 2 and day 4 after ecdysis. The expression of phm and dib peaked at day 2, and sad and shd expressions peaked at day 2 and day 4 after ecdysis. In addition, the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer showed a small peak at day 2 and a large peak at day 4 after ecdysis. These results suggest the importance of Halloween genes in ecdysone biosynthesis by prothoracic glands and conversion of ecdysone into 20E by fat body in larval-pupal metamorphosis.Peptides 09/2009; 31(3):456-67. · 2.43 Impact Factor