Myeloperoxidase-targeted imaging of active inflammatory lesions in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
ABSTRACT Inflammatory demyelinating plaques are the pathologic hallmark of active multiple sclerosis and often precede clinical manifestations. Non-invasive early detection of active plaques would thus be crucial in establishing pre-symptomatic diagnosis and could lead to early preventive treatment strategies. Using murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis as a model of multiple sclerosis, we demonstrate that a prototype paramagnetic myeloperoxidase (MPO) sensor can detect and confirm more, smaller, and earlier active inflammatory lesions in living mice by in vivo MRI. We show that MPO expression corresponded with areas of inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination, and higher MPO activity as detected by MPO imaging, biochemical assays, and histopathological analyses correlated with increased clinical disease severity. Our findings present a potential new translational approach for specific non-invasive inflammatory plaque imaging. This approach could be used in longitudinal studies to identify active demyelinating plaques as well as to more accurately track disease course following treatment in clinical trials.
SourceAvailable from: Makoto Hayase[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Few effective treatment options exist for stroke beyond the hyperacute period. Radical generation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been implicated in stroke. We investigated whether pharmacologic reduction or gene deletion of this highly oxidative enzyme reduces infarct propagation and improves outcome in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model (MCAO). Mice were treated with 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABAH), a specific irreversible MPO inhibitor. Three treatment regimens were used: (1) daily throughout the 21-day observational period, (2) during the acute stage (first 24 hours), or (3) during the subacute stage (daily starting on day 2). We found elevated MPO activity in ipsilateral brain 3 to 21 days after ischemia. 4-Aminobenzoic acid hydrazide reduced enzyme activity by 30% to 40% and final lesion volume by 60% (P<0.01). The MPO-knockout (KO) mice subjected to MCAO also showed a similar reduction in the final lesion volume (P<0.01). The ABAH treatment or MPO-KO mice also improved neurobehavioral outcome (P<0.001) and survival (P=0.01), but ABAH had no additional beneficial effects in MPO-KO mice, confirming specificity of ABAH. Interestingly, inhibiting MPO activity during the subacute stage recapitulated most of the therapeutic benefit of continuous MPO inhibition, suggesting that MPO-targeted therapies could be useful when given after 24 hours of stroke onset.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 17 December 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.222.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 12/2014; DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.222 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neuroinflammation plays a central role in a variety of neurological diseases, including stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and malignant CNS neoplasms, among many other. Different cell types and molecular mediators participate in a cascade of events in the brain that is ultimately aimed at control, regeneration and repair, but leads to damage of brain tissue under pathological conditions. Non-invasive molecular imaging of key players in the inflammation cascade holds promise for identification and quantification of the disease process before it is too late for effective therapeutic intervention. In this review, we focus on molecular imaging techniques that target inflammatory cells and molecules that are of interest in neuroinflammation, especially those with high translational potential. Over the past decade, a plethora of molecular imaging agents have been developed and tested in animal models of (neuro)inflammation, and a few have been translated from bench to bedside. The most promising imaging techniques to visualize neuroinflammation include MRI, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and optical imaging methods. These techniques enable us to image adhesion molecules to visualize endothelial cell activation, assess leukocyte functions such as oxidative stress, granule release, and phagocytosis, and label a variety of inflammatory cells for cell tracking experiments. In addition, several cell types and their activation can be specifically targeted in vivo, and consequences of neuroinflammation such as neuronal death and demyelination can be quantified. As we continue to make progress in utilizing molecular imaging technology to study and understand neuroinflammation, increasing efforts and investment should be made to bring more of these novel imaging agents from the "bench to bedside."01/2014; 5. DOI:10.4172/2155-9899.1000226
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ABSTRACT: Although the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was thought to protect the brain from the effects of the immune system, immune cells can nevertheless migrate from the blood to the brain, either as a cause or as a consequence of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, thus contributing to their evolution and outcome. Accordingly, as the interface between the CNS and the peripheral immune system, the BBB is critical during neuroinflammatory processes. In particular, endothelial cells are involved in the brain response to systemic or local inflammatory stimuli by regulating the cellular movement between the circulation and the brain parenchyma. While neuropathological conditions differ in etiology and in the way in which the inflammatory response is mounted and resolved, cellular mechanisms of neuroinflammation are probably similar. Accordingly, neuroinflammation is a hallmark and a decisive player of many CNS diseases. Thus, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of inflammatory processes is a central theme of research in several neurological disorders focusing on a set of molecules expressed by endothelial cells, such as adhesion molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1, P-selectin, E-selectin, …), which emerge as therapeutic targets and biomarkers for neurological diseases. In this review, we will present the most recent advances in the field of preclinical molecular MRI. Moreover, we will discuss the possible translation of molecular MRI to the clinical setting with a particular emphasis on myeloperoxidase imaging, autologous cell tracking, and targeted iron oxide particles (USPIO, MPIO).Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 11/2014; 8:389. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2014.00389 · 4.18 Impact Factor