Trial-by-trial relationship between neural activity, oxygen consumption, and blood flow responses.
ABSTRACT Trial-by-trial variability in local field potential (LFP), tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and deoxyhemoglobin-weighted optical imaging of intrinsic signals (OIS) were tested in the rat somatosensory cortex while fixed electrical forepaw stimulation (1.0-ms pulses with amplitude of 1.2 mA at a frequency of 6 Hz) was repeatedly applied. The changes in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) were also evaluated using a hypotension condition established by our group based on the administration of a vasodilator. Under normal conditions, CBF, PO2, and OIS showed positive signal changes (48%, 32%, and 0.42%, respectively) following stimulation. Over multiple trials, the CBF responses were well correlated with the integral of the LFP amplitudes (sigmaLFP) (Rmean=0.78), whereas a lower correlation was found between PO2 and sigmaLFP (Rmean=0.60) and between OIS and sigmaLFP (Rmean=0.54). Under the hypotension condition the LFP responses were preserved, but the CBF responses were suppressed and the PO2 and OIS changes were negative (-12% and -0.28%, respectively). In this condition, the trial-by-trial variations in PO2 and OIS were well correlated with the variability in sigmaLFPs (Rmean= -0.77 and -0.76, respectively), indicating a single trial coupling between CMRO2 changes and sigmaLFP. These findings show that CBF and CMRO2 signals are more directly correlated with neural activity compared to blood oxygen-sensitive methods such as OIS and BOLD fMRI.
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial preproteins are imported by a multisubunit translocase of the outer membrane (TOM), including receptor proteins and a general import pore. The central receptor Tom22 binds preproteins through both its cytosolic domain and its intermembrane space domain and is stably associated with the channel protein Tom40 (refs 11-13). Here we report the unexpected observation that a yeast strain can survive without Tom22, although it is strongly reduced in growth and the import of mitochondrial proteins. Tom22 is a multifunctional protein that is required for the higher-level organization of the TOM machinery. In the absence of Tom22, the translocase dissociates into core complexes, representing the basic import units, but lacks a tight control of channel gating. The single membrane anchor of Tom22 is required for a stable interaction between the core complexes, whereas its cytosolic domain serves as docking point for the peripheral receptors Tom20 and Tom70. Thus a preprotein translocase can combine receptor functions with distinct organizing roles in a multidomain protein.Nature 10/1999; 401(6752):485-9. · 36.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated whether the intersession variability of serial fMRI studies correlates between two activation modalities, i.e. a standardized visual and a standardized motor task. Six volunteers were scanned in at least weekly intervals. The number of pixels activated as well as the activation amplitude varied widely. The maximal difference of the number of pixels activated was 1150%, of the activation amplitude 250%. In three volunteers, the variability was highly correlated between the two tasks. Three other volunteers showed one outlier each. We conclude that the intersession variability is due to global factors affecting the whole brain, but that due to unpredictable outliers, using a standardized task to normalize the data of interest is of limited value.Neuroreport 12/2000; 11(17):3843-7. · 1.66 Impact Factor
Article: Spatial specificity of the enhanced dip inherently induced by prolonged oxygen consumption in cat visual cortex: implication for columnar resolution functional MRI.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Since changes in oxygen consumption induced by active neurons are specific to cortical columns, the small and transient "dip" of deoxyhemoglobin signal, which indicates an increase in oxygen consumption, has been of great interest. In this study, we succeeded in enhancing and sustaining the dip in the deoxyhemoglobin-weighted 620-nm intrinsic optical imaging signals from a 10-s orientation-selective stimulation in cat visual cortex by reducing arterial blood pressure with sodium nitroprusside (a vasodilator) to mitigate the contribution of stimulus-induced blood supply. During this condition, intact spiking activity and a significant reduction of stimulus-induced blood volume changes (570-nm intrinsic signals) were confirmed. The deoxyhemoglobin signal from the prolonged dip was highly localized to iso-orientation domains only during the initial approximately 2 s; the signal specificity weakened over time although the domains were still resolvable after 2 s. The most plausible explanation for this time-dependent spatial specificity is that deoxyhemoglobin induced by oxygen consumption drains from active sites, where spiking activity occurs, to spatially non-specific downstream vessels over time. Our results suggest that the draining effect of pial and intracortical veins in dHb-based imaging techniques, such as blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI, is intrinsically unavoidable and reduces its spatial specificity of dHb signal regardless of whether the stimulus-induced blood supply is spatially specific.NeuroImage 04/2006; 30(1):70-87. · 5.89 Impact Factor